Rambus Inc.
RAMBUS INC (Form: 10-K, Received: 02/25/2011 16:13:00)
Table of Contents

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
 
 
Form 10-K
 
 
 
     
(Mark One)    
 
þ
  ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2010
or
o
  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the transition period from          to          
 
Commission file number: 000-22339
 
 
 
 
RAMBUS INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
 
     
Delaware   94-3112828
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
1050 Enterprise Way, Suite 700
Sunnyvale, California
(Address of principal executive offices)
  94089
(Zip Code)
 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:
(408) 462-8000
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
     
Title of Each Class   Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
 
Common Stock, $.001 Par Value   The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
    (The NASDAQ Global Select Market)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
 
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes  þ      No  o
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes  o      No  þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  þ      No  o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes  þ      No  o
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.   þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
             
Large accelerated filer  þ
  Accelerated filer  o   Non-accelerated filer  o
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
  Smaller reporting company  o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes  o      No  þ
 
The aggregate market value of the Registrant’s Common Stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant as of June 30, 2010 was approximately $1.7 billion based upon the closing price reported for such date on The NASDAQ Global Select Market. For purposes of this disclosure, shares of Common Stock held by officers and directors of the Registrant and persons that may be deemed to be affiliates under the Act have been excluded. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
 
The number of outstanding shares of the Registrant’s Common Stock, $.001 par value, was 107,487,978 as of January 31, 2011.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
 
Certain information is incorporated into Part III of this report by reference to the Proxy Statement for the Registrant’s annual meeting of stockholders to be held on or about April 28, 2011 to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Form 10-K.
 


 

 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
                 
Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements     2  
       
PART I.      3  
  Item 1.     Business     4  
  Item 1A.     Risk Factors     12  
  Item 1B.     Unresolved Staff Comments     26  
  Item 2.     Properties     27  
  Item 3.     Legal Proceedings     27  
  Item 4.     Removed and Reserved     27  
       
PART II.     27  
  Item 5.     Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities     27  
  Item 6.     Selected Financial Data     30  
  Item 7.     Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations     31  
  Item 7A.     Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk     51  
  Item 8.     Financial Statements and Supplementary Data     53  
  Item 9.     Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure     53  
  Item 9A.     Controls and Procedures     53  
  Item 9B.     Other Information     54  
       
PART III     54  
  Item 10.     Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance     54  
  Item 11.     Executive Compensation     54  
  Item 12.     Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters     54  
  Item 13.     Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence     55  
  Item 14.     Principal Accountant Fees and Services     55  
       
PART IV     55  
  Item 15.     Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules     55  
SIGNATURES     115  
POWER OF ATTORNEY     115  
INDEX TO EXHIBITS     117  
  EX-21.1
  EX-23.1
  EX-31.1
  EX-31.2
  EX-32.1
  EX-32.2
  EX-101 INSTANCE DOCUMENT
  EX-101 SCHEMA DOCUMENT
  EX-101 CALCULATION LINKBASE DOCUMENT
  EX-101 LABELS LINKBASE DOCUMENT
  EX-101 PRESENTATION LINKBASE DOCUMENT
  EX-101 DEFINITION LINKBASE DOCUMENT


Table of Contents

 
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Annual Report”) contains forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements include, without limitation, predictions regarding the following aspects of our future:
 
  •  Success in the markets of our or our licensees’ products;
 
  •  Sources of competition;
 
  •  Research and development costs and improvements in technology;
 
  •  Sources, amounts and concentration of revenue, including royalties;
 
  •  Success in renewing license agreements;
 
  •  Product development;
 
  •  Pricing policies of our licensees;
 
  •  Engineering, marketing and general and administration expenses;
 
  •  Contract revenue;
 
  •  Operating results;
 
  •  International licenses and operations, including our design facility in Bangalore, India;
 
  •  Issuances of our securities, which could involve restrictive covenants or be dilutive to our existing stockholders;
 
  •  Acquisitions, mergers or strategic transactions;
 
  •  Interest and other income, net;
 
  •  Effects of changes in the economy and credit market on our industry and business;
 
  •  Deterioration of financial health of commercial counterparties and their ability to meet their obligations to us;
 
  •  Restructuring activities;
 
  •  Growth in our business;
 
  •  Methods, estimates and judgments in accounting policies;
 
  •  Adoption of new accounting pronouncements;
 
  •  Ability to identify, attract, motivate and retain qualified personnel;
 
  •  Effective tax rates;
 
  •  Realization of deferred tax assets/release of deferred tax valuation allowance;
 
  •  Repurchases of our Common Stock pursuant to share repurchase programs or otherwise;
 
  •  Trading price of our Common Stock;
 
  •  Internal control environment;
 
  •  Corporate governance;
 
  •  Consequences of the lawsuits related to the stock option investigation;
 
  •  The level and terms of our outstanding debt;
 
  •  Outcome and effect of current and potential future intellectual property litigation;
 
  •  Resolution of the governmental agency matters involving us;


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  •  Litigation expenses;
 
  •  Protection of intellectual property;
 
  •  Terms of our licenses;
 
  •  Amounts owed under licensing agreements;
 
  •  Indemnification and technical support obligations; and
 
  •  Likelihood of paying dividends or repurchasing stock.
 
You can identify these and other forward-looking statements by the use of words such as “may,” “future,” “shall,” “should,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “intends,” “potential,” “continue,” or the negative of such terms, or other comparable terminology. Forward-looking statements also include the assumptions underlying or relating to any of the foregoing statements.
 
Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under Item 1A, “Risk Factors.” All forward-looking statements included in this document are based on our assessment of information available to us at this time. We assume no obligation to update any forward-looking statements.
 
PART I
 
Rambus, RDRAM tm , XDR tm , FlexIO tm and FlexPhase tm are trademarks or registered trademarks of Rambus Inc. Other trademarks that may be mentioned in this annual report on Form 10-K are the property of their respective owners.
 
Industry terminology, used widely throughout this annual report, has been abbreviated and, as such, these abbreviations are defined below for your convenience:
 
     
Double Data Rate
  DDR
Dynamic Random Access Memory
  DRAM
Fully Buffered-Dual Inline Memory Module
  FB-DIMM
Gigabits per second
  Gb/s
Graphics Double Data Rate
  GDDR
Input/Output
  I/O
Light Emitting Diodes
  LED
Lighting and Display Technology
  LDT
Liquid Crystal Display
  LCD
Peripheral Component Interconnect
  PCI
Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory
  RDRAM tm
Single Data Rate
  SDR
Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
  SDRAM
eXtreme Data Rate
  XDR tm


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From time to time we will refer to the abbreviated names of certain entities and, as such, have provided a chart to indicate the full names of those entities for your convenience.
 
     
Advanced Micro Devices Inc. 
  AMD
Broadcom Corporation
  Broadcom
Elpida Memory, Inc. 
  Elpida
Freescale Semiconductor Inc. 
  Freescale
Fujitsu Limited
  Fujitsu
General Electric Company
  GE
Global Lighting Technologies, Inc. 
  GLT
Hewlett-Packard Company
  Hewlett-Packard
Hynix Semiconductor, Inc. 
  Hynix
Infineon Technologies AG
  Infineon
Inotera Memories, Inc. 
  Inotera
Intel Corporation
  Intel
International Business Machines Corporation
  IBM
Joint Electronic Device Engineering Councils
  JEDEC
Juniper Networks, Inc. 
  Juniper
LSI Corporation
  LSI
MediaTek Inc. 
  MediaTek
Micron Technologies, Inc. 
  Micron
Nanya Technology Corporation
  Nanya
NEC Electronics Corporation
  NEC
NVIDIA Corporation
  NVIDIA
Qimonda AG (formerly Infineon’s DRAM operations)
  Qimonda
Panasonic Corporation
  Panasonic
Renesas Electronics
  Renesas
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. 
  Samsung
Sony Computer Electronics
  Sony
Spansion, Inc. 
  Spansion
ST Microelectronics N.V. 
  ST Microelectronics
Texas Instruments Inc. 
  Texas Instruments
Toshiba Corporation
  Toshiba
Velio Communications
  Velio
 
Item 1.    Business
 
Rambus Inc. (“we” or “Rambus”) was founded in 1990 and reincorporated in Delaware in March 1997. Our principal executive offices are located at 1050 Enterprise Way, Suite 700, Sunnyvale, California. Our Internet address is www.rambus.com. You can obtain copies of our Forms 10-K, 10-Q, 8-K, and other filings with the SEC, and all amendments to these filings, free of charge from our website as soon as reasonably practicable following our filing of any of these reports with the SEC. In addition, you may read and copy any material we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Room 1580, Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy, and information statements, and other information regarding registrants that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov.


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We are a premier intellectual property and technology licensing company. Our primary focus is the creation, design, development and licensing of patented innovations, technologies and architectures that are foundational to nearly all digital electronics products and systems. Our patented innovations and technologies aim to improve the performance, power efficiency, time-to-market and cost-effectiveness of our customers’ products, components and systems offered and used in semiconductors, computers, mobile applications, gaming and graphics, consumer electronics, lighting displays and general lighting. By licensing our patented innovations and technologies, we hope to continuously enrich the end-user experience of the digital electronics products and systems marketed and sold by our customers and licensees. We believe we have established an unparalleled licensing platform and business model that will continue to foster the development of new foundational and leading innovations and technologies. As a result, our goal is to create significant licensing opportunities, and thereby perpetuate strong company operating performance and long term stockholder value.
 
While we have historically focused our efforts in developing and licensing patented innovations and technologies for the semiconductor industry, particularly in the area of chip interfaces, we have initiated diversification efforts to expand our portfolio of patented innovations and technologies into lighting and displays, mobile communications, and additional semiconductor technologies. We expect to continue this diversification initiative through the acquisition of assets and the hiring of the inventors, scientists and engineers who will lead the effort to further develop these patented innovations and technologies in these new areas of focus. During 2010, we initiated an internal structural reorganization to establish separate business groups for our semiconductor industry focused operations (“Semiconductor Business Group” or “SBG”) and operations focused on new or emerging licensing opportunities (“New Business Group” or “NBG”) which includes our lighting and display technology (“LDT”) group. We expect this internal realignment to help drive efficiencies in operations and optimize our licensing platform and business model as we expand and diversify into new markets.
 
As of December 31, 2010, our semiconductor, chip interface, lighting, display and other technologies are covered by approximately 1,180 U.S. and foreign patents. Additionally, we have approximately 850 patent applications pending. These patents and patent applications cover important inventions in memory and logic chip interfaces, optoelectronics, mobile applications and other technologies. Some of the patents and pending patent applications are derived from a common parent patent application or are foreign counterpart patent applications. We have a program to file applications for and obtain patents in the United States and in selected foreign countries where we believe filing for such protection is appropriate and would further our overall strategy and objectives. In some instances, obtaining appropriate levels of protection may involve prosecuting continuation and counterpart patent applications based on a common parent application. We believe that our patented innovations provide our customers means to achieve higher performance, improved power efficiency, lower risk, and greater cost-effectiveness in their digital electronics products and systems.
 
Our patented innovations and technologies are offered to our customers through either a patent license or a technology license. Our revenues are primarily derived from patent licenses, through which we provide a license to our broad portfolio of patented innovations primarily to semiconductor and system companies who use these innovations in the development and manufacture of their own products. Our patent licensing agreements may provide a license to all or part of our patent portfolio for a particular use, product or technology. The patent license essentially provides our customers with a defined right to use our patented innovations in the customer’s own digital electronics products and systems. Patent license agreements are generally structured with variable royalty payments, although some agreements include fixed payments over certain defined periods.
 
We also offer our customers technology licenses. We typically offer technology licenses to support the implementation and adoption of our patented innovations and technologies through know-how and technology transfers, product design, development, and system integration consulting and engineering services. Our technology license offerings also include a range of solutions developed by Rambus, which include “leadership” solutions (which are Rambus-proprietary solutions widely licensed to our customers) and industry-standard solutions that we provide to our customers under license for incorporation into our customers’ digital electronics products and systems. Due to the often complex nature of implementing state-of-the art technology, we also offer engineering services to our customers to help them successfully integrate our solutions into their digital electronics products and systems. These technology license agreements may have both a fixed price (non-recurring) component and ongoing royalties. Engineering services are generally offered on a fixed price basis. Further, under technology licenses, our


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customers typically receive licenses to our patents necessary to implement these solutions in their products with specific rights and restrictions to the applicable patents elaborated in their individual contracts with us.
 
Background
 
Semiconductor Industry
 
The performance of computers, mobile phones, consumer electronics and other electronic systems rises dramatically with each passing year. Semiconductor and system designers face key challenges in sustaining this pace of innovation. Since battery technology improves modestly over time, mobile device designers face adding increased functionality and higher performance with only small increases in power budget. For plug-in systems, there is a strong desire to reduce power consumption for both economical and environmental reasons while still providing increased computing capability and more visually compelling displays. At the chip level, it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain signal integrity and power efficiency as data transfer speeds rise to support more powerful, multi-core processors.
 
To address these challenges and enable the continued improvement of electronics systems requires ongoing innovation. The many contributions and patented innovations developed by Rambus’ scientists and engineers have been, and continue to be, critical in addressing some of the most difficult chip and system challenges. We have developed what we believe are the world’s fastest memory solutions delivering breakthrough performance at unmatched power efficiency. Our patented innovations can deliver the memory bandwidth and throughput needed to unleash the potential of multi-core processors.
 
Lighting and Display Technologies and other Diversification Areas
 
The expected obsolescence and expected replacement of current general lighting products and applications represent a significant market opportunity for new and advanced innovations and technologies that utilize light emitting diodes (“LEDs”). Moreover, LED backlighting solutions are increasingly pervasive in liquid crystal displays (“LCDs”) for computers, mobile phones, gaming systems, HDTVs and any user interface utilizing a light emitting screen. These emerging technologies in the lighting and display market offer distinct advantages over traditional lighting sources in image quality, power efficiency and reliability and have either been widely adopted in current digital electronics products and systems, as in the case of LED backlighting, or are in the process of market adoption, as in the case of LED based general lighting products and applications.
 
We believe that our patented innovations in advanced lighting technologies represent significant value to applications, products and systems that currently use and incorporate these innovations and those that will be adopted into new products and systems. For example, our patented innovations in backlighting can enable what we believe to be some of the thinnest, most power-efficient and cost-effective LCD displays for mobile phones, computers and high definition televisions (“HDTVs”). In addition, our goal is that our patented innovations and technology in general lighting will offer revolutionary and breakthrough solutions that will provide exceptional quality and control of illumination in form factors unconstrained by legacy lighting products and systems. We believe that these breakthrough patented innovations and technologies advance our mission of enriching the consumer experience of electronic products and systems and represent additional significant licensing opportunities in growing markets.
 
We are also continuing our efforts to invent, develop and expand our patented innovations and technologies into other markets for digital electronics products and systems, such as mobile communications and other end user applications.
 
Our Offerings
 
Patented Innovations
 
Royalties represent a substantial majority of our total revenue. We derive the majority of our royalty revenue by licensing our broad portfolio of patents for chip interfaces to our customers. These licenses may cover part or all of our patent portfolio in semiconductor technologies. Leading semiconductor and system companies such as


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AMD, Elpida, Fujitsu, GE, Intel, Panasonic, Renesas, Samsung and Toshiba have licensed our patents for use in their own products. Examples of the many patented innovations in our portfolio include, and have included,:
 
Dual Edge Clocking which is designed to allow data to be sent on both the leading and trailing edge of the clock pulse, effectively doubling the transfer rate out of a memory core without the need for higher system clock speeds.
 
Variable Burst Length which is designed to improve data transfer efficiency by allowing varying amounts of data to be sent per a memory read or write request in DRAMs and Flash memory.
 
FlexPhase tm technology which synchronizes data output and compensates for circuit timing errors.
 
Channel Equalization which is designed to improve signal integrity and system margins by reducing inter-symbol interference in high speed parallel and serial link channels.
 
Module Threading which improves the throughput and power efficiency of a memory module by applying parallelism to module data accesses.
 
MicroLens tm optical design technology which provides optimum utilization of high-brightness LEDs in edge-lit lighting applications delivering superior brightness, control and uniformity of illumination.
 
Technology Solutions and Enabling Services
 
We license a range of technology solutions including our leadership architectures and industry-standard solutions to customers for use in their digital electronics products and systems. Our customers include leading companies such as Elpida, GE, IBM, Panasonic, Samsung, Sony and Toshiba. Due to the complex nature of implementing our technologies, we provide engineering services under certain of these licenses to help our customers successfully integrate our technology solutions into their semiconductor and system products. Licensees may also receive, in addition to their technology license agreements, patent licenses as necessary to implement the technology in their products with specific rights and restrictions to the applicable patents elaborated in their individual contracts.
 
Our leadership technology solutions include the XDR tm , XDR tm 2, Mobile XDR tm and RDRAM tm memory architectures and the FlexIO tm processor bus.
 
The XDR tm Memory Architecture enables what we believe to be the world’s fastest production DRAM with operation up to 7.2Gb/s. XDR tm DRAM is the main memory solution for Sony Computer Entertainment’s PlayStation ® 3 as well as for Texas Instrument’s latest generation of Digital Light Processing (“DLP”) projectors.
 
The XDR tm 2 Memory Architecture incorporates new innovations, including DRAM micro-threading, to deliver the world’s highest performance for graphics intensive applications such as gaming and digital video.
 
The Mobile XDR tm Memory Architecture delivers high performance with excellent power efficiency enabling applications such as HD video recording and 3D gaming on battery powered mobile devices.
 
RDRAM tm Memory has shipped in the Sony PlayStation ® 2, Intel-based personal computers (“PCs”), Texas Instruments DLP TVs and in Juniper routers. Our customers have sold over 500 million RDRAM tm devices across all applications to date. This product is approaching end-of-life, and we anticipate revenue from RDRAM tm solutions will continue to decline.
 
The FlexIO tm Processor Bus is a high speed chip-to-chip interface. It is one of our two key chip interface products that enable the Cell BE processor co-developed by Sony, Toshiba and IBM. In the PlayStation ® 3, the FlexIO tm bus provides the interface between the Cell BE, the RSX graphics processor and the SouthBridge chip.
 
We also offer industry-standard chip interface solutions, including DDRx (where the “x” is a number that represents a version), as well as digital logic controllers for PCI Express and other industry standard interfaces.
 
In addition, we offer custom solutions for displays, LED backlights and general lighting.
 
Design and Manufacturing
 
Our technology solutions are developed with high-volume commercial manufacturing processes in mind. Our solutions can be delivered in a number of ways, from reference designs to full turnkey custom developments. A


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reference design engagement might include an architectural specification, data sheet, theory of operation and implementation guides. A custom development would entail a specific design implementation optimized for the licensee’s manufacturing process.
 
Target Markets, Applications and Customers
 
We work with leading and emerging semiconductor and digital electronics products and system customers to enable their next-generation products. We engage with our customers across the entire product life cycle, from system architecture development, to component design, to system integration, to production ramp-up through product maturation. Our patented innovations and technologies are incorporated into a broad range of high-volume applications in computing, gaming and graphics, lighting, consumer electronics and mobile markets. System level products that utilize our patented inventions and/or solutions include personal computers, servers, printers, video projectors, game consoles, HDTVs, set-top boxes and mobile phones manufactured by such companies as Fujitsu, IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Panasonic, Toshiba, Samsung and Sony.
 
Our Strategy
 
The key elements of our strategy are as follows:
 
Innovate:   Develop and patent our innovative technology to provide fundamental competitive advantage when incorporated into semiconductors, and digital electronics products and systems.
 
Drive Adoption:   Communicate the advantages of our patented innovations and technologies to the industry and encourage its adoption through demonstrations and incorporation in the products of select customers.
 
Monetize:   License our patented inventions and technology solutions to customers for use in their semiconductor and system products.
 
We believe that the successful execution of this strategy requires an exceptional and unparalleled licensing platform and business model that relies on the skills and talent of our employees. Accordingly, we seek to hire and retain world class scientific and engineering expertise in all of our fields of technological focus, as well as the executive management and operating personnel required to successfully execute our business strategy. In order to attract the quality of employees required for this business model, we have created an environment and culture that encourages, fosters and supports research, development and innovation in breakthrough technologies with significant opportunities for broad industry adoption through licensing. We believe that we have created a compelling company for inventors and innovators who are able to work within a business model and platform that focuses on intellectual property development and licensing to drive strong future growth.
 
Research and Development
 
Our ability to compete in the future will be substantially dependent on our ability to develop and patent key innovations that meet the future needs of a dynamic market. To this end, we have assembled a team of highly skilled engineers and scientists whose activities are focused on continually developing new innovations within our chosen technology fields. Using this foundation of patented innovations, our technical teams develop new product solutions that enable increased performance, and greater power efficiency as well as other improvements and benefits. Our solution design and development process is a multi-disciplinary effort requiring expertise in system architecture, digital and analog circuit design and layout, semiconductor process characteristics, packaging, printed circuit board routing, signal integrity, high-speed testing techniques, optical design, thermal management, and system integration.
 
As of December 31, 2010, we had approximately 240 employees in our engineering departments, representing approximately 62% of our total employees. A significant number of our scientists and engineers spend all or a portion of their time on research and development. For the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, research and development expenses were $92.7 million, $67.3 million and $76.2 million, respectively, including stock-based compensation of approximately $10.2 million, $9.7 million and $13.5 million, respectively. Since innovation is critical to our future success, we expect to continue to invest substantial funds in research and development activities. In addition, because our license and support agreements often call for us to provide engineering support, a portion of our total engineering costs are allocated to the cost of contract revenue.


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Competition
 
The electronics industry is intensely competitive and has been impacted by price erosion, rapid technological change, short product life cycles, cyclical market patterns and increasing foreign and domestic competition. We face competition from semiconductor and digital electronics products and systems companies, as well as other intellectual property companies, who provide their own technologies, including DDR memory chip interface technology and solutions. In addition, most DRAM manufacturers, including our XDR tm licensees, produce versions of DRAM such as SDR, DDRx and GDDRx SDRAM which compete with XDR tm solutions. Further, there are ongoing efforts to integrate memory and processors such as in system-in-package products. For our patented innovations and technologies for the lighting market, we face competition from system and subsystem providers of display, backlighting and general lighting solutions.
 
We believe that our principal competition for our technologies may come from our prospective licensees, some of whom are evaluating and developing products based on technologies that they contend or may contend will not require a license from us. Some of our competitors use a system-level design approach similar to ours, including activities such as board and package design, power and signal integrity analysis, and thermal management. Many of these companies are larger and may have better access to financial, technical and other resources than we possess.
 
To the extent that alternatives might provide comparable system performance at lower than or similar cost to our technologies, or are perceived to require the payment of no or lower royalties, or to the extent other factors influence the industry, our licensees and prospective licensees may adopt and promote alternative technologies. Even to the extent we determine that such alternative technologies infringe our patents, there can be no assurance that we would be able to negotiate agreements that would result in royalties being paid to us without litigation, which could be costly and the results of which would be uncertain. Litigation has been, and may continue to be required to enforce and protect our intellectual property rights, as well as the substantial investments undertaken to research and develop our innovations and technologies.
 
Employees
 
As of December 31, 2010, we had approximately 390 full-time employees. None of our employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements. As noted above, we believe that our future success is dependent on our continued ability to identify, attract, motivate and retain qualified personnel. To date, we believe that we have been successful in recruiting qualified employees and that our relationship with our employees is good.
 
Patents and Intellectual Property Protection
 
We maintain and support an active program to protect our intellectual property, primarily through the filing of patent applications and the defense of issued patents against infringement. As of December 31, 2010, we have approximately 1,180 U.S. and foreign patents on various aspects of our technology, with expiration dates ranging from 2011 to 2029, and we have approximately 850 pending patent applications. These patents and patent applications cover important inventions in memory and logic chip interfaces, optoelectronics and other technologies. Some of the patents and pending patent applications are derived from a common parent patent application or are foreign counterpart patent applications. We have a program to file applications for and obtain patents in the United States and in selected foreign countries where we believe filing for such protection is appropriate. In some instances, obtaining appropriate levels of protection may involve prosecuting continuation and counterpart patent applications based on a common parent application. In addition, we attempt to protect our trade secrets and other proprietary information through agreements with current and prospective licensees, and confidentiality agreements with employees and consultants and other security measures. We also rely on trademarks and trade secret laws to protect our intellectual property.
 
Business Segment Data, Customers and Our Foreign Operations
 
Prior to 2010, Rambus operated in a single industry segment, the design, development and licensing of memory and logic interfaces, lighting and optoelectronics, and other technologies. In 2010, the Company reorganized, and as a result, at the end of the fourth quarter of 2010, Rambus has two business groups: SBG which focuses on the design, development and licensing of semiconductor technology, and NBG which focuses on the design, development and licensing of lighting and display technologies, mobile and other technologies.


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Information concerning revenue, results of operations and revenue by geographic area is set forth in Item 6, “Selected Financial Data,” in Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and in Note 13, “Business Segments and Major Customers,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K, all of which are incorporated herein by reference. Information concerning identifiable assets is also set forth in Note 13, “Business Segments and Major Customers,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K. Information on customers that comprise 10% or more of our consolidated revenue and risks attendant to our foreign operations is set forth below in Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”
 
Our Executive Officers
 
Information regarding our executive officers and their ages and positions as of February 25, 2011, is contained in the table below. Our executive officers are appointed by, and serve at the discretion of, our Board of Directors. There is no family relationship between any of our executive officers.
 
             
Name   Age   Position and Business Experience
 
Sharon E. Holt
    46     Senior Vice President, GM, Semiconductor Business Group. Ms. Holt has served in her current position (formerly titled Senior Vice President, Licensing and Marketing and Senior Vice President, Worldwide Sales, Licensing and Marketing) since joining us in August 2004. From November 1999 to July 2004, Ms. Holt held various positions at Agilent Technologies, Inc., an electronics instruments and controls company, most recently as vice president and general manager, Americas Field Operations, Semiconductor Products Group. Prior to Agilent Technologies, Inc., Ms. Holt held various engineering, marketing, and sales management positions at Hewlett-Packard Company, a hardware manufacturer. Ms. Holt holds a B.S. in Electrical Engineering, with a minor in Mathematics, from the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Harold Hughes
    65     Chief Executive Officer and President. Mr. Hughes has served as our chief executive officer and president since January 2005 and as a director since June 2003. He served as a United States Army Officer from 1969 to 1972 before starting his private sector career with Intel Corporation. Mr. Hughes held a variety of positions within Intel Corporation from 1974 to 1997, including treasurer, vice president of Intel Capital, chief financial officer, and vice president of Planning and Logistics. Following his tenure at Intel, Mr. Hughes was the chairman and chief executive officer of Pandesic, LLC. He holds a B.A. from the University of Wisconsin and an M.B.A. from the University of Michigan. He also serves as a director of Berkeley Technology, Ltd.
Thomas Lavelle
    60     Senior Vice President and General Counsel. Mr. Lavelle has served in his current position since December 2006. Previous to that, Mr. Lavelle served as vice president and general counsel at Xilinx, one of the world’s leading suppliers of programmable chips. Mr. Lavelle joined Xilinx in 1999 after spending more than 15 years at Intel Corporation where he held various positions in the legal department. Mr. Lavelle earned a J.D. from Santa Clara University School of Law and a B.A. from the University of California at Los Angeles.


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Name   Age   Position and Business Experience
 
Satish Rishi
    51     Senior Vice President, Finance and Chief Financial Officer. Mr. Rishi joined us in his current position in April 2006. Prior to joining us, Mr. Rishi held the position of executive vice president of Finance and chief financial officer of Toppan Photomasks, Inc., (formerly DuPont Photomasks, Inc.) one of the world’s leading photomask providers, from November 2001 to April 2006. During his 25-year career, Mr. Rishi has held senior financial management positions at semiconductor and electronic manufacturing companies. He served as vice president and assistant treasurer at Dell Inc. Prior to Dell, Mr. Rishi spent 13 years at Intel Corporation, where he held financial management positions both in the United States and overseas, including assistant treasurer. Mr. Rishi holds a B.S. with honors in Mechanical Engineering from Delhi University in Delhi, India and an M.B.A. from the University of California at Berkeley’s Haas School of Business. He also serves as a director of Measurement Specialties, Inc.
Michael Schroeder
    51     Senior Vice President, Human Resources. Mr. Schroeder has served as our Senior Vice President, Human Resources since January 2011 and as our Vice President, Human Resources since joining us in June 2004. From April 2003 to May 2004, Mr. Schroeder was vice president, Human Resources at DigitalThink, Inc., an online service company. From August 2000 to August 2002, Mr. Schroeder served as vice president, Human Resources at Alphablox Corporation, a software company. From August 1992 to August 2000, Mr. Schroeder held various positions at Synopsys, Inc., a software and programming company, including vice president, California Site Human Resources, group director Human Resources, director Human Resources and employment manager. Mr. Schroeder attended the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee and studied Russian.
Martin Scott, Ph.D. 
    55     Senior Vice President, GM, New Business Group. Dr. Scott has served in his current position (formerly titled Senior Vice President, Research and Technology Development) since December 2006. Dr. Scott joined us from PMC-Sierra, Inc., a provider of broadband communications and storage integrated circuits, where he was most recently vice president and general manager of its Microprocessor Products Division from March 2006. Dr. Scott was the vice president and general manager for the I/O Solutions Division (which was purchased by PMC-Sierra) of Avago Technologies Limited, an analog and mixed signal semiconductor components and subsystem company, from October 2005 to March 2006. Dr. Scott held various positions at Agilent Technologies, including as vice president and general manager for the I/O Solutions division from October 2004 to October 2005, when the division was purchased by Avago Technologies, vice president and general manager of the ASSP Division from March 2002 until October 2004, and, before that, Network Products operation manager. Dr. Scott started his career in 1981 as a member of the technical staff at Hewlett Packard Laboratories and held various management positions at Hewlett Packard and was appointed ASIC business unit manager in 1998. He earned a B.S. from Rice University and holds both an M.S. and Ph.D. from Stanford University.

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Item 1A.    Risk Factors
 
RISK FACTORS
 
Because of the following factors, as well as other variables affecting our operating results, past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. See also “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” elsewhere in this report.
 
Risks Associated With Our Business, Industry and Market Conditions
 
If market leaders do not adopt our innovations, our results of operations could decline.
 
An important part of our strategy is to penetrate our target market segments by working with leaders in those market segments. This strategy is designed to encourage other participants in those segments to follow such leaders in adopting our innovations. If a high profile industry participant adopts our innovations but fails to achieve success with its products or adopts and achieves success with a competing technology, our reputation and sales could be adversely affected. For example, if our commercial relationships with Samsung do not achieve success, our reputation could be adversely affected given the market position of Samsung as a leading memory manufacturer. In addition, some industry participants have adopted, and others may in the future adopt, a strategy of disparaging our memory solutions adopted by their competitors or a strategy of otherwise undermining the market adoption of our solutions.
 
We target system companies to adopt our chip interface technologies, particularly those that develop and market high volume business and consumer products, which were traditionally focused on PCs, including PC graphics processors, and video game consoles, and now include HDTVs, cellular and digital phones, personal digital assistants (“PDAs”), digital cameras and other consumer electronics that incorporate all varieties of memory and chip interfaces. In particular, our strategy includes gaining acceptance of our technology in high volume consumer applications, including video game consoles, such as the Sony PlayStation ® 3, HDTVs and set top boxes. As we diversify our technologies, such as through the establishment of our LDT group, we will seek out other target markets in and related to computing, gaming and graphics, consumer electronics, mobile and general lighting applications. We are subject to many risks beyond our control that influence whether or not a potential licensee or partner company will adopt our technologies, including, among others:
 
  •  competition faced by a company in its particular industry;
 
  •  the timely introduction and market acceptance of a company’s products;
 
  •  the engineering, sales and marketing and management capabilities of a company;
 
  •  technical challenges unrelated to our innovations faced by a company in developing its products;
 
  •  the financial and other resources of a company;
 
  •  the supply of semiconductors from our memory and chip interface licensees in sufficient quantities and at commercially attractive prices;
 
  •  the ability to establish the prices at which the chips containing our chip interfaces are made available to system companies; and
 
  •  the degree to which our licensees promote our innovations to their customers.
 
There can be no assurance that consumer products that currently use our technology will continue to do so, nor can there be any assurance that the consumer products that incorporate our technology will be successful in their markets in order to generate expected royalties, nor can there be any assurance that any of our technologies selected for licensing will be implemented in a commercially developed or distributed product. If any of these events occur and market leaders do not successfully adopt our technologies, our strategy may not be successful and, as a result, our results of operations could decline.


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We have traditionally operated in an industry that is highly cyclical and in which the number of our potential customers may be in decline as a result of industry consolidation, and we face intense competition in all of our target markets that may cause our results of operations to suffer.
 
The semiconductor industry is intensely competitive and has been impacted by price erosion, rapid technological change, short product life cycles, cyclical market patterns and increasing foreign and domestic competition. As the semiconductor industry is highly cyclical, significant economic downturns characterized by diminished demand, erosion of average selling prices, production overcapacity and production capacity constraints could affect the semiconductor industry. We have just emerged from such a period of economic downturn. As a result, we may achieve a reduced number of licenses, tightening of customers’ operating budgets, difficulty or inability of our customers to pay our licensing fees, extensions of the approval process for new licenses and consolidation among our customers, all of which may adversely affect the demand for our technology and may cause us to experience substantial period-to-period fluctuations in our operating results.
 
Many of our customers operate in industries that have experienced significant declines as a result of the recent economic downturn. In particular, DRAM manufacturers, which make up a majority of our existing and potential licensees, have suffered material losses and other adverse effects to their businesses. These factors may result in industry consolidation as companies seek to reduce costs and improve profitability through business combinations. Consolidation among our existing DRAM and other customers may result in loss of revenues under existing license agreements. Consolidation among companies in the DRAM and other industries within which we license our technology may reduce the number of future licensees for our products and services. In either case, consolidation in the DRAM and other industries in which we operate may negatively impact our short-term and long-term business prospects, licensing revenues and results of operations.
 
We face competition from semiconductor and intellectual property companies who provide their own DDR memory chip interface technology and solutions. In addition, most DRAM manufacturers, including our XDR tm licensees, produce versions of DRAM such as SDR, DDRx, GDDRx SDRAM and LPDDRx which compete with XDR tm chips. We believe that our principal competition for memory chip interfaces may come from our licensees and prospective licensees, some of which are evaluating and developing products based on technologies that they contend or may contend will not require a license from us. In addition, our competitors are also taking a system approach similar to ours in seeking to solve the application needs of system companies. Many of these companies are larger and may have better access to financial, technical and other resources than we possess. Wider applications of other developing memory technologies, including FLASH memory, may also pose competition to our licensed memory solutions.
 
JEDEC has standardized what it calls extensions of DDR, known as DDR2 and DDR3. Other efforts are underway to create other products including those sometimes referred to as GDDR4 and GDDR5, as well as new ways to integrate products such as system-in-package DRAM. To the extent that these alternatives might provide comparable system performance at lower or similar cost than XDR tm memory chips, or are perceived to require the payment of no or lower royalties, or to the extent other factors influence the industry, our licensees and prospective licensees may adopt and promote alternative technologies. Even to the extent we determine that such alternative technologies infringe our patents, there can be no assurance that we would be able to negotiate agreements that would result in royalties being paid to us without litigation, which could be costly and the results of which would be uncertain.
 
The display industry is intensely competitive and is impacted by rapid technological change, shifting government mandates, cyclical market patterns and increasing foreign and domestic competition. In particular, our LDT group faces competition from system and subsystem providers of backlighting and general lighting solutions, some of which have substantial resources and operations.
 
If for any of these reasons we cannot effectively compete in these primary market segments, our results of operations could suffer.


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If our NBG does not succeed, our results of operations may be adversely affected.
 
The future success of our NBG, which includes our LDT group, depends on our ability to develop new or emerging licensing opportunities, diversify our business into lighting and displays, mobile communications and additional semiconductor technologies, and, specifically for our LDT group, improve the visual capabilities, form factor, power efficiency and cost-effectiveness of backlighting of LCD displays in products for computing, gaming and graphics, consumer electronics, mobile and general lighting applications.
 
We will need to keep pace with rapid changes in advanced lighting and optoelectronics technology, changing consumer requirements, new product introductions and evolving industry standards, any of which could render our existing technology obsolete if we fail to respond in a timely manner. The extent to which companies in the general lighting industry adopt solid state lighting and license our lighting technologies, and the timing of such adoption and licensing, if it occurs at all, is subject to many factors beyond our control and is not predictable by us. We are subject to many risks beyond our control that influence whether or not a potential licensee or partner company will adopt and license our lighting technologies.
 
The development, application and licensing of new backlit lighting technologies is a complex process subject to a number of uncertainties, including the integration of our LDT group into the rest of our company and the limited resources of the LDT group. Our competitors have significant marketing, workforce, financial and other resources and longer operating history which could make acceptance of our lighting technologies more difficult. If others develop innovative proprietary lighting technology that is superior to ours or if we fail to accurately anticipate technology and market trends, respond on a timely basis with our own new enhancements and technology, and achieve broad market acceptance of these enhancements and technology, our competitive position may be harmed and our operating results may be adversely affected.
 
In order to grow, we may have to invest more resources in research and development than anticipated, which could increase our operating expenses and negatively impact our operating results.
 
If new competitors, technological advances by existing competitors, our entry into new markets, and/or development of new technologies or other competitive factors require us to invest significantly greater resources than anticipated in our research and development efforts, our operating expenses would increase. For the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, research and development expenses were $92.7 million, $67.3 million and $76.2 million, respectively, including stock-compensation of approximately $10.2 million, $9.7 million and $13.5 million, respectively. If we are required to invest significantly greater resources than anticipated in research and development efforts without an increase in revenue, especially with respect to our LDT group and any other new technologies that we pursue outside of our core memory and chip interface technologies, our operating results could decline. Research and development expenses are likely to fluctuate from time to time to the extent we make periodic incremental investments in research and development, including as a result of our investment in new technologies, and these investments may be independent of our level of revenue. In order to grow, which may include entering new markets and/or developing new technologies, we anticipate that we will continue to devote substantial resources to research and development. We expect these expenses to increase in absolute dollars in the foreseeable future due to the increased complexity and the greater number of products under development as well as selectively hiring additional employees.
 
Our revenue is concentrated in a few customers, and if we lose any of these customers, our revenue may decrease substantially.
 
We have a high degree of revenue concentration. As a result of our settlement with Samsung, Samsung accounted for a significant portion of our ongoing licensing revenue in 2010. Our top five licensees represented approximately 85%, 77% and 67% of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2010, revenue from Elpida and Samsung accounted for 10% or more of our total revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2009, revenue from AMD, Fujitsu, NEC, Panasonic and Toshiba, each accounted for 10% or more of our total revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2008, revenue from AMD, Elpida, Fujitsu, NEC, Panasonic and Sony, each accounted for 10% or more of our total revenue. We expect to continue to experience significant revenue concentration for the foreseeable future.


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In addition, some of our commercial agreements require us to provide certain customers with the lowest royalty rate that we provide to other customers for similar technologies, volumes and schedules. These clauses may limit our ability to effectively price differently among our customers, to respond quickly to market forces, or otherwise to compete on the basis of price. The particular licensees which account for revenue concentration have varied from period to period as a result of the addition of new contracts, expiration of existing contracts, renewal of existing contracts, industry consolidation, including the combination in 2010 of NEC and Renesas, the expiration of deferred revenue schedules under existing contracts, and the volumes and prices at which the licensees have recently sold licensed semiconductors to system companies. These variations are expected to continue in the foreseeable future, although we anticipate that revenue will continue to be concentrated in a limited number of licensees.
 
We are in negotiations with licensees and prospective licensees to reach patent license agreements for DRAM devices and DRAM controllers. We expect that patent license royalties will continue to vary from period to period based on our success in renewing existing license agreements and adding new licensees, as well as the level of variation in our licensees’ reported shipment volumes, sales price and mix, offset in part by the proportion of licensee payments that are fixed. However, we cannot provide any assurance that we will reach agreement on renewal terms or that the royalty rates we will be entitled to receive under the new agreements will be as favorable to us as our current agreements. If we are unsuccessful in renewing any of these patent license agreements, our results of operations may decline significantly.
 
If we cannot respond to rapid technological change in our target markets by developing new innovations in a timely and cost-effective manner, our operating results will suffer.
 
We derive most of our revenue from our chip interface technologies that we have patented. We expect that this dependence on our fundamental technology will continue for the foreseeable future. The semiconductor industry is characterized by rapid technological change, with new generations of semiconductors being introduced periodically and with ongoing improvements. The introduction or market acceptance of competing chip interfaces that render our chip interfaces less desirable or obsolete would have a rapid and material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. The announcement of new chip interfaces by us could cause licensees or system companies to delay or defer entering into arrangements for the use of our current chip interfaces, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We are dependent on the semiconductor industry to develop test solutions that are adequate to test our chip interfaces and to supply such test solutions to our customers and us.
 
Our continued success depends on our ability to introduce and patent enhancements and new generations of our chip interface technologies that keep pace with other changes in the semiconductor industry and which achieve rapid market acceptance. We must continually devote significant engineering resources to addressing the ever increasing need for higher speed chip interfaces associated with increases in the speed of microprocessors and other controllers. The technical innovations that are required for us to be successful are inherently complex and require long development cycles, and there can be no assurance that our development efforts will ultimately be successful. In addition, these innovations must be:
 
  •  completed before changes in the semiconductor industry render them obsolete;
 
  •  available when system companies require these innovations; and
 
  •  sufficiently compelling to cause semiconductor manufacturers to enter into licensing arrangements with us for these new technologies.
 
Significant technological innovations generally require a substantial investment before their commercial viability can be determined, and this concept applies to all of our target markets. There can be no assurance that we have accurately estimated the amount of resources required to complete our innovation efforts, or that we will have, or be able to expend, sufficient resources required for the development of our innovations. In addition, there is market risk associated with these products for which we develop technological innovations, and there can be no assurance that unit volumes, and their associated royalties, will occur. If our technology fails to capture or maintain a portion of the high volume target consumer market, our business results could suffer.


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Some of our revenue is subject to the pricing policies of our licensees over whom we have no control.
 
We have no control over our licensees’ pricing of their products and there can be no assurance that licensee products using or containing our chip interfaces will be competitively priced or will sell in significant volumes. One important requirement for our memory chip interfaces is for any premium charged by our licensees in the price of memory and controller chips over alternatives to be reasonable in comparison to the perceived benefits of the chip interfaces. If the benefits of our technology do not match the price premium charged by our licensees, the resulting decline in sales of products incorporating our technology could harm our operating results.
 
Our licensing cycle is lengthy and costly and our marketing and licensing efforts may be unsuccessful.
 
The process of persuading customers to adopt and license our chip interface and other technologies can be lengthy and, even if successful, there can be no assurance that our technologies will be used in a product that is ultimately brought to market, achieves commercial acceptance, or results in significant royalties to us. We generally incur significant marketing and sales expenses prior to entering into our license agreements, generating a license fee and establishing a royalty stream from each licensee. The length of time it takes to establish a new licensing relationship can take many months or even years. In addition, our ongoing intellectual property litigation and regulatory actions have and will likely continue to have an impact on our ability to enter into new licenses and renewals of licenses. As such, we may incur costs in any particular period before any associated revenue stream begins, if at all. If our marketing and sales efforts are very lengthy or unsuccessful, then we may face a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations as a result of delay or failure to obtain royalties.
 
Future revenue is difficult to predict for several reasons, and our failure to predict revenue accurately may cause us to miss analysts’ estimates and result in our stock price declining.
 
Our lengthy and costly license negotiation cycle and our ongoing intellectual property litigation make our future revenue difficult to predict because we may not be successful in entering into licenses with our customers on our estimated timelines and we are reliant on the litigation timelines for any results or settlements, such as our January 2010 settlement with Samsung.
 
While some of our license agreements provide for fixed, quarterly royalty payments, many of our license agreements provide for volume-based royalties, and may also be subject to caps on royalties in a given period. The sales volume and prices of our licensees’ products in any given period can be difficult to predict. As a result, our actual results may differ substantially from analyst estimates or our forecasts in any given quarter.
 
In addition, a portion of our revenue comes from development and support services provided to our licensees. Depending upon the nature of the services, a portion of the related revenue may be recognized ratably over the support period, or may be recognized according to contract accounting. Contract revenue accounting may result in deferral of the service fees to the completion of the contract, or may be recognized over the period in which services are performed on a percentage-of-completion basis. There can be no assurance that the product development schedule for these projects will not be changed or delayed. All of these factors make it difficult to predict future licensing revenue and may result in our missing previously announced earnings guidance or analysts’ estimates which would likely cause our stock price to decline.
 
Our quarterly and annual operating results are unpredictable and fluctuate, which may cause our stock price to be volatile and decline.
 
Since many of our revenue components fluctuate and are difficult to predict, and our expenses are largely independent of revenue in any particular period, it is difficult for us to accurately forecast revenue and profitability. Factors other than those set forth above, which are beyond our ability to control or assess in advance, that could cause our operating results to fluctuate include:
 
  •  semiconductor and system companies’ acceptance of our chip interface products;
 
  •  the success of high volume consumer applications;


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  •  the dependence of our royalties upon fluctuating sales volumes and prices of licensed chips that include our technology;
 
  •  the seasonal shipment patterns of systems incorporating our chip interface products;
 
  •  the loss of any strategic relationships with system companies or licensees;
 
  •  semiconductor or system companies discontinuing major products incorporating our chip interfaces;
 
  •  the unpredictability of litigation results or settlements and the timing and amount of any litigation expenses;
 
  •  changes in our customers’ development schedules and levels of expenditure on research and development;
 
  •  our licensees terminating or failing to make payments under their current contracts or seeking to modify such contracts, whether voluntarily or as a result of financial difficulties;
 
  •  the results of our efforts to expand into new target markets, such as with our LDT group;
 
  •  changes in our strategies, including changes in our licensing focus and/or acquisitions of companies with business models or target markets different from our own; and
 
  •  changes in the economy and credit market and their effects upon demand for our technology and the products of our licensees.
 
We believe that royalties will continue to represent a majority of total revenue for the foreseeable future. For the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, royalties accounted for 99%, 96% and 89%, respectively, of our total revenue. Royalties are generally recognized in the quarter in which we receive a report from a licensee regarding the sale of licensed chips in the prior quarter; however, royalties are recognized only if collectability is assured. As a result of these uncertainties and effects being outside of our control, royalty revenue is difficult to predict and makes it difficult to develop accurate financial forecasts, which could cause our stock price to become volatile and decline.
 
A substantial portion of our revenue is derived from sources outside of the United States and this revenue and our business generally are subject to risks related to international operations that are often beyond our control.
 
For the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, revenue received from our international customers constituted approximately 93%, 83% and 84% of our total revenue, respectively. As a result of our continued focus on international markets, we expect that future revenue derived from international sources will continue to represent a significant portion of our total revenue.
 
To date, all of the revenue from international licensees has been denominated in U.S. dollars. However, to the extent that such licensees’ sales to systems companies are not denominated in U.S. dollars, any royalties which are based as a percentage of the customer’s sales that we receive as a result of such sales could be subject to fluctuations in currency exchange rates. In addition, if the effective price of licensed semiconductors sold by our foreign licensees were to increase as a result of fluctuations in the exchange rate of the relevant currencies, demand for licensed semiconductors could fall, which in turn would reduce our royalties. We do not use financial instruments to hedge foreign exchange rate risk.
 
We currently have international design operations in India and business development operations in Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Germany. Our international operations and revenue are subject to a variety of risks which are beyond our control, including:
 
  •  export controls, tariffs, import and licensing restrictions and other trade barriers;
 
  •  profits, if any, earned abroad being subject to local tax laws and not being repatriated to the United States or, if repatriation is possible, limited in amount;
 
  •  treatment of revenue from international sources and changes to tax codes, including being subject to foreign tax laws and being liable for paying withholding, income or other taxes in foreign jurisdictions, such as withholding taxes in Korea;


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  •  foreign government regulations and changes in these regulations;
 
  •  social, political and economic instability;
 
  •  lack of protection of our intellectual property and other contract rights by jurisdictions in which we may do business to the same extent as the laws of the United States;
 
  •  changes in diplomatic and trade relationships;
 
  •  cultural differences in the conduct of business both with licensees and in conducting business in our international facilities and international sales offices;
 
  •  operating centers outside the United States;
 
  •  hiring, maintaining and managing a workforce remotely and under various legal systems; and
 
  •  geo-political issues.
 
We and our licensees are subject to many of the risks described above with respect to companies which are located in different countries, particularly home video game console, PC and other consumer electronics manufacturers located in Asia and elsewhere. There can be no assurance that one or more of the risks associated with our international operations could not result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
 
We have in the past and may in the future make acquisitions or enter into mergers, strategic transactions or other arrangements that could cause our business to suffer.
 
As part of our strategic initiatives, we have completed a number of acquisitions in 2009 and 2010, currently are evaluating, and expect to continue to engage in, investments in or acquisitions of companies, products, patents or technologies, and the entry into strategic transactions or other arrangements. These acquisitions, investments, transactions or arrangements are likely to range in size, some of which may be significant. After completing our acquisitions, we may experience difficulty integrating that company’s or division’s personnel and operations, which could negatively affect our operating results. In addition:
 
  •  the key personnel of the acquired entity or business may decide not to work for us or may not perform according to our expectations;
 
  •  we may experience additional legal, financial and accounting challenges and complexities in areas such as licensing, tax planning, cash management and financial reporting;
 
  •  our ongoing business, including our operations, technology development and deliveries to our customers, may be disrupted or receive insufficient management attention, and employee retention and productivity could also suffer;
 
  •  we may not be able to recognize the financial benefits we anticipated and/or we may suffer losses, both with respect to our ongoing business and the acquired entity or business;
 
  •  our increasing international presence resulting from acquisitions may increase our exposure to international currency, tax and political risks; and
 
  •  our lack of experience in new markets, products or technologies may cause us to fail to recognize the forecasted financial and strategic benefits of the acquisition.
 
In connection with our strategic initiatives related to future acquisitions or mergers, strategic transactions or other arrangements, we may incur substantial expenses regardless of whether any transactions occur. Further, the risks described above may be exacerbated as a result of managing multiple acquisitions simultaneously. In addition, we may be required to assume the liabilities of the companies or related to the businesses we acquire. The assumption of such liabilities may include those related to intellectual property infringement or indemnification of customers of acquired businesses for similar claims, which could materially and adversely affect our business. We may have to incur debt or issue equity securities to pay for any future acquisition, the issuance of which could involve restrictive covenants or be dilutive to our existing stockholders.


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Weak global economic conditions may adversely affect demand for the products and services of our licensees.
 
Our operations and performance depend significantly on worldwide economic conditions, and the U.S. and world economies are emerging from a prolonged period of weak economic conditions. Uncertainty about global economic conditions poses a risk as consumers and businesses may postpone spending in response to tighter credit, negative financial news and declines in income or asset values, which could have a material negative effect on the demand for the products of our licensees in the foreseeable future. Other factors that could influence demand include continuing increases in fuel and energy costs, competitive pressures, including pricing pressures, from companies that have competing products, changes in the credit market, conditions in the residential real estate and mortgage markets, consumer confidence, and other macroeconomic factors affecting consumer spending behavior. If our licensees experience reduced demand for their products as a result of economic conditions or otherwise, our business and results of operations could be harmed.
 
If our counterparties are unable to fulfill their financial and other obligations to us, our business and results of operations may be affected adversely.
 
Any downturn in economic conditions or other business factors could threaten the financial health of our counterparties, including companies with whom we have entered into licensing arrangements, settlement agreements, or that have been subject to litigation judgments that provide for payments to us, and their ability to fulfill their financial and other obligations to us. Such financial pressures on our counterparties may eventually lead to bankruptcy proceedings or other attempts to avoid financial obligations that are due to us under licenses, settlement agreements or litigation judgments. Because bankruptcy courts have the power to modify or cancel contracts of the petitioner which remain subject to future performance and alter or discharge payment obligations related to pre-petition debts, we may receive less than all of the payments that we would otherwise be entitled to receive from any such counterparty as a result of a bankruptcy proceedings. For example, in 2009, two of our counterparties, Qimonda and Spansion, were subject to insolvency proceedings in their applicable jurisdictions as a result of a downturn in business which led to lower than anticipated or no payment to us. If we are unable to collect all of such payments owed to us, or if other of our counterparties enter into bankruptcy or otherwise seek to renegotiate their financial obligations to us as a result of the deterioration of their financial health, our business and results of operations may be affected adversely.
 
Our business and operating results may be harmed if we undertake any restructuring activities or if we are unable to manage growth in our business.
 
From time to time, we may undertake to restructure our business. There are several factors that could cause a restructuring to have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. These include potential disruption of our operations, the development of our technology, the deliveries to our customers and other aspects of our business. Employee morale and productivity could also suffer and we may lose employees whom we want to keep. Loss of sales, service and engineering talent, in particular, could damage our business. Any restructuring would require substantial management time and attention and may divert management from other important work. Employee reductions or other restructuring activities also cause us to incur restructuring and related expenses such as severance expenses. Moreover, we could encounter delays in executing any restructuring plans, which could cause further disruption and additional unanticipated expense.
 
Our business historically experienced periods of rapid growth that placed significant demands on our managerial, operational and financial resources. In the event that we return to such a period of growth, whether through internal expansion or acquisitions of other businesses or technologies, we would need to improve and expand our management, operational and financial systems and controls. We also would need to expand, train and manage our employee base. We cannot assure you that in connection with any such growth we will be able to timely and effectively meet demand and maintain the quality standards required by our existing and potential customers and licensees. If we ineffectively manage our growth or we are unsuccessful in recruiting and retaining personnel, our business and operating results will be harmed.


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Unanticipated changes in our tax rates or in the tax laws and regulations could expose us to additional income tax liabilities which could affect our operating results and financial condition.
 
We are subject to income taxes in both the United States and various foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision (or benefit) for income taxes and, in the ordinary course of business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Our effective tax rate could be adversely affected by changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, changes in tax laws and regulations as well as other factors. Our tax determinations are regularly subject to audit by tax authorities and developments in those audits could adversely affect our income tax provision. Although we believe that our tax estimates are reasonable, the final determination of tax audits or tax disputes may be different from what is reflected in our historical income tax provisions which could affect our operating results.
 
Our results of operations could vary as a result of the methods, estimates and judgments we use in applying our accounting policies.
 
The methods, estimates and judgments we use in applying our accounting policies have a significant impact on our results of operations, including the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, as described elsewhere in this report. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates, including those related to revenue recognition, investments, income taxes, litigation, goodwill and intangibles, and other contingencies. Such methods, estimates, and judgments are, by their nature, subject to substantial risks, uncertainties, and assumptions, and factors may arise over time that lead us to change our methods, estimates, and judgments. In addition, actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
 
Changes in those methods, estimates, and judgments could significantly affect our results of operations. In particular, the measurement of share-based compensation expense requires us to use valuation methodologies and a number of assumptions, estimates, and conclusions regarding matters such as expected forfeitures, expected volatility of our share price, and the exercise behavior of our employees. Changes in these factors may affect both our reported results (including cost of contract revenue, research and development expenses, marketing, general and administrative expenses and our effective tax rate) and any forward-looking projections we make that incorporate projections of share-based compensation expense. Furthermore, there are no means, under applicable accounting principles, to compare and adjust our reported expense if and when we learn about additional information that may affect the estimates that we previously made, with the exception of changes in expected forfeitures of share-based awards. Factors may arise that lead us to change our estimates and assumptions with respect to future share-based compensation arrangements, resulting in variability in our share-based compensation expense over time.
 
If we are unable to attract and retain qualified personnel, our business and operations could suffer.
 
Our success is dependent upon our ability to identify, attract, compensate, motivate and retain qualified personnel, especially engineers, who can enhance our existing technologies and introduce new technologies. Competition for qualified personnel, particularly those with significant industry experience, is intense, in particular in the San Francisco Bay Area where we are headquartered and in the area of Bangalore, India where we have a design center. We are also dependent upon our senior management personnel. The loss of the services of any of our senior management personnel, or key sales personnel in critical markets, or critical members of staff, or of a significant number of our engineers could be disruptive to our development efforts or business relationships and could cause our business and operations to suffer.
 
Our operations are subject to risks of natural disasters, acts of war, terrorism or widespread illness at our domestic and international locations, any one of which could result in a business stoppage and negatively affect our operating results.
 
Our business operations depend on our ability to maintain and protect our facility, computer systems and personnel, which are primarily located in the San Francisco Bay Area. The San Francisco Bay Area is in close proximity to known earthquake fault zones. Our facility and transportation for our employees are susceptible to


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damage from earthquakes and other natural disasters such as fires, floods and similar events. Should an earthquake or other catastrophes, such as fires, floods, power loss, communication failure or similar events disable our facilities, we do not have readily available alternative facilities from which we could conduct our business, which stoppage could have a negative effect on our operating results. Acts of terrorism, widespread illness and war could also have a negative effect at our international and domestic facilities.
 
Risks Related to Corporate Governance and Capitalization Matters
 
The price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly, which may make it difficult for holders to resell their shares when desired or at attractive prices.
 
Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “RMBS.” The trading price of our common stock has been subject to wide fluctuations which we expect to continue in the future in response to, among other things, the following:
 
  •  new litigation or developments in current litigation, including an unfavorable outcome to us from court proceedings relating to our ongoing litigation and reaction to any settlements that we enter into with former litigants;
 
  •  any progress, or lack of progress, real or perceived, in the development of products that incorporate our innovations;
 
  •  our signing or not signing new licensees;
 
  •  announcements of our technological innovations or new products by us, our licensees or our competitors;
 
  •  positive or negative reports by securities analysts as to our expected financial results;
 
  •  developments with respect to patents or proprietary rights and other events or factors;
 
  •  trading activity related to our share repurchase plans; and
 
  •  issuance of additional securities by us, such as our issuance of approximately 9.6 million shares of common stock to Samsung in connection with our settlement agreement in January 2010.
 
In addition, the stock market in general, and prices for companies in our industry in particular, have experienced extreme volatility that often has been unrelated to the operating performance of such companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the price of our common stock, regardless of our operating performance. Because our outstanding senior convertible notes are convertible into shares of our common stock, volatility or depressed prices of our common stock could have a similar effect on the trading price of our notes. In addition, the existence of the notes may encourage short selling in our common stock by market participants because the conversion of the notes could depress the price of our common stock. Sales of substantial amounts of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that those sales may occur, could cause the market price of our common stock to decline. In addition, lack of positive performance in our stock price may adversely affect our ability to retain key employees.
 
We have been party to, and may in the future be subject to, lawsuits relating to securities law matters which may result in unfavorable outcomes and significant judgments, settlements and legal expenses which could cause our business, financial condition and results of operations to suffer.
 
In connection with our stock option investigation, we and certain of our current and former officers and directors, as well as our current auditors, were subject to several stockholder derivative actions, securities fraud class actions and/or individual lawsuits filed in federal court against us and certain of our current and former officers and directors. The complaints generally allege that the defendants violated the federal and state securities laws and state law claims for fraud and breach of fiduciary duty. While we have settled the derivative and securities fraud class actions, the individual lawsuits continue to be adjudicated. For more information about the historic litigation described above, see Note 15, “Litigation and Asserted Claims,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K. The amount of time to resolve these current and any future lawsuits is uncertain, and these matters could require significant management and financial resources which could otherwise be devoted to the operation of


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our business. Although we have expensed or accrued for certain liabilities that we believe will result from certain of these actions, the actual costs and expenses to defend and satisfy all of these lawsuits and any potential future litigation may exceed our current estimated accruals, possibly significantly. Unfavorable outcomes and significant judgments, settlements and legal expenses in litigation related to our past and any future securities law claims could have material adverse impacts on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and the trading price of our common stock.
 
We are leveraged financially, which could adversely affect our ability to adjust our business to respond to competitive pressures and to obtain sufficient funds to satisfy our future research and development needs, to protect and enforce our intellectual property and other needs.
 
We have indebtedness. In 2009, we issued $172.5 million aggregate principal amount of our 5% convertible senior notes due 2014 (the “2014 Notes”). The degree to which we are leveraged could have important consequences, including, but not limited to, the following:
 
  •  our ability to obtain additional financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, litigation, general corporate or other purposes may be limited;
 
  •  a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations in the future will be dedicated to the payment of the principal of our indebtedness as we are required to pay the principal amount of our 2014 Notes in cash upon conversion if specified conditions are met or when due;
 
  •  if upon any conversion of our 2014 Notes we are required to satisfy our conversion obligation with shares of our common stock or we are required to pay a “make-whole” premium with shares of our common stock, our existing stockholders’ interest in us would be diluted; and
 
  •  we may be more vulnerable to economic downturns, less able to withstand competitive pressures and less flexible in responding to changing business and economic conditions.
 
A failure to comply with the covenants and other provisions of our debt instruments could result in events of default under such instruments, which could permit acceleration of all of our notes. Any required repayment of our notes as a result of a fundamental change or other acceleration would lower our current cash on hand such that we would not have those funds available for use in our business.
 
If we are at any time unable to generate sufficient cash flows from operations to service our indebtedness when payment is due, we may be required to attempt to renegotiate the terms of the instruments relating to the indebtedness, seek to refinance all or a portion of the indebtedness or obtain additional financing. There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully renegotiate such terms, that any such refinancing would be possible or that any additional financing could be obtained on terms that are favorable or acceptable to us. In addition, we may be required to purchase the shares of contingently redeemable common stock for an aggregate purchase price of up to $100.0 million that may be put back to us by Samsung in 2011, which would reduce our cash resources.
 
If securities or industry analysts change their recommendations regarding our stock adversely, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
 
The trading market for our common stock is influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us, our business or our market. If one or more of the analysts who cover us change their recommendation regarding our stock adversely, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of our company or fails to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.
 
Compliance with changing regulation of corporate governance and public disclosure may result in additional expenses.
 
Changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure, including new Securities and Exchange Commission, regulations and NASDAQ rules, have historically created uncertainty for companies such as ours. Any new or changed laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying


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interpretations in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies, which could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices. Any new investment of resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards, may result in increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management time and attention from revenue generating activities to compliance activities. If our efforts to comply with new or changed laws, regulations and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory or governing bodies due to ambiguities related to practice, our reputation may be harmed and our business and operations would suffer.
 
Our restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws, Delaware law and our outstanding convertible notes contain provisions that could discourage transactions resulting in a change in control, which may negatively affect the market price of our common stock.
 
Our restated certificate of incorporation, our bylaws and Delaware law contain provisions that might enable our management to discourage, delay or prevent a change in control. In addition, these provisions could limit the price that investors would be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock. Pursuant to such provisions:
 
  •  our board of directors is authorized, without prior stockholder approval, to create and issue preferred stock, commonly referred to as “blank check” preferred stock, with rights senior to those of common stock, which means that a new stockholder rights plan could be implemented by our board to replace our old plan that has now expired;
 
  •  our board of directors is staggered into two classes, only one of which is elected at each annual meeting;
 
  •  stockholder action by written consent is prohibited;
 
  •  nominations for election to our board of directors and the submission of matters to be acted upon by stockholders at a meeting are subject to advance notice requirements;
 
  •  certain provisions in our bylaws and certificate of incorporation such as notice to stockholders, the ability to call a stockholder meeting, advance notice requirements and action of stockholders by written consent may only be amended with the approval of stockholders holding 66 2 / 3 % of our outstanding voting stock;
 
  •  our stockholders have no authority to call special meetings of stockholders; and
 
  •  our board of directors is expressly authorized to make, alter or repeal our bylaws.
 
We are also subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which provides, subject to enumerated exceptions, that if a person acquires 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock, the person is an “interested stockholder” and may not engage in any “business combination” with us for a period of three years from the time the person acquired 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock.
 
Certain provisions of our outstanding convertible notes could make it more difficult or more expensive for a third party to acquire us. Upon the occurrence of certain transactions constituting a fundamental change, holders of the notes will have the right, at their option, to require us to repurchase, at a cash repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest on the notes, all or a portion of their notes. We may also be required to issue additional shares of our common stock upon conversion of such notes in the event of certain fundamental changes.
 
Litigation, Regulation and Business Risks Related to our Intellectual Property
 
We face current and potential adverse determinations in litigation stemming from our efforts to protect and enforce our patents and intellectual property, which could broadly impact our intellectual property rights, distract our management and cause a substantial decline in our revenue and stock price.
 
We seek to diligently protect our intellectual property rights. In connection with the extension of our licensing program to SDR SDRAM-compatible and DDR SDRAM-compatible products, we became involved in litigation related to such efforts against different parties in multiple jurisdictions. In each of these cases, we have claimed


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infringement of certain of our patents, while the manufacturers of such products have generally sought damages and a determination that the patents in suit are invalid, unenforceable, and not infringed. Among other things, the opposing parties have alleged that certain of our patents are unenforceable because we engaged in document spoliation, litigation misconduct and/or acted improperly during our 1991 to 1995 participation in the JEDEC standard setting organization (including allegations of antitrust violations and unfair competition). We have also become involved in litigation related to infringement of our patents related to products having certain peripheral interfaces. See Note 15, “Litigation and Asserted Claims,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K.
 
There can be no assurance that any or all of the opposing parties will not succeed, either at the trial or appellate level, with such claims or counterclaims against us or that they will not in some other way establish broad defenses against our patents, achieve conflicting results, or otherwise avoid or delay paying royalties for the use of our patented technology. Moreover, there is a risk that if one party prevails against us, other parties could use the adverse result to defeat or limit our claims against them; conversely, there can be no assurance that if we prevail against one party, we will succeed against other parties on similar claims, defenses, or counterclaims. In addition, there is the risk that the pending litigations and other circumstances may cause us to accept less than what we now believe to be fair consideration in settlement.
 
Any of these matters or any future intellectual property litigation, whether or not determined in our favor or settled by us, is costly, may cause delays (including delays in negotiating licenses with other actual or potential licensees), will tend to discourage future design partners, will tend to impair adoption of our existing technologies and divert the efforts and attention of our management and technical personnel from other business operations. In addition, we may be unsuccessful in our litigation if we have difficulty obtaining the cooperation of former employees and agents who were involved in our business during the relevant periods related to our litigation and are now needed to assist in cases or testify on our behalf. Furthermore, any adverse determination or other resolution in litigation could result in our losing certain rights beyond the rights at issue in a particular case, including, among other things: our being effectively barred from suing others for violating certain or all of our intellectual property rights; our patents being held invalid or unenforceable or not infringed; our being subjected to significant liabilities; our being required to seek licenses from third parties; our being prevented from licensing our patented technology; or our being required to renegotiate with current licensees on a temporary or permanent basis. Even if we are successful in our litigation, or any settlement of such litigation, there is no guarantee that the applicable opposing parties will be able to pay any damages awards timely or at all as a result of financial difficulties or otherwise. Delay or any or all of these adverse results could cause a substantial decline in our revenue and stock price.
 
An adverse resolution by or with a governmental agency could result in severe limitations on our ability to protect and license our intellectual property, and would cause our revenue to decline substantially.
 
From time to time, we are subject to proceedings by government agencies, such as our Federal Trade Commission and European Commission proceedings over the past several years. These proceedings may result in adverse determinations against us or in other outcomes that could limit our ability to enforce or license our intellectual property, and could cause our revenue to decline substantially.
 
In addition, third parties have and may attempt to use adverse findings by a government agency to limit our ability to enforce or license our patents in private litigations, to challenge or otherwise act against us with respect to such government agency proceedings, such as the attempts by Hynix to appeal our settlement with the European Commission, and to assert claims for monetary damages against us. Although we have successfully defeated certain attempts to do so, there can be no assurance that other third parties will not be successful in the future or that additional claims or actions arising out of adverse findings by a government agency will not be asserted against us.
 
Further, third parties have sought and may seek review and reconsideration of the patentability of inventions claimed in certain of our patents by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“PTO”) and/or the European Patent Office (the “EPO”). Currently, we are subject to several re-examination proceedings, including proceedings initiated by Hynix, Micron and NVIDIA as a defensive action in connection with our litigation against those companies. An adverse decision by the PTO or EPO could invalidate some or all of these patent claims and could also result in additional adverse consequences affecting other related U.S. or European patents, including in our


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intellectual property litigation. If a sufficient number of such patents are impaired, our ability to enforce or license our intellectual property would be significantly weakened and this could cause our revenue to decline substantially.
 
The pendency of any governmental agency acting as described above may impair our ability to enforce or license our patents or collect royalties from existing or potential licensees, as our litigation opponents may attempt to use such proceedings to delay or otherwise impair any pending cases and our existing or potential licensees may await the final outcome of any proceedings before agreeing to new licenses or pay royalties.
 
Litigation or other third-party claims of intellectual property infringement could require us to expend substantial resources and could prevent us from developing or licensing our technology on a cost-effective basis.
 
Our research and development programs are in highly competitive fields in which numerous third parties have issued patents and patent applications with claims closely related to the subject matter of our programs. We have also been named in the past, and may in the future be named, as a defendant in lawsuits claiming that our technology infringes upon the intellectual property rights of third parties. In the event of a third-party claim or a successful infringement action against us, we may be required to pay substantial damages, to stop developing and licensing our infringing technology, to develop non-infringing technology, and to obtain licenses, which could result in our paying substantial royalties or our granting of cross licenses to our technologies. Threatened or ongoing third-party claims or infringement actions may prevent us from pursuing additional development and licensing arrangements for some period. For example, we may discontinue negotiations with certain customers for additional licensing of our patents due to the uncertainty caused by our ongoing litigation on the terms of such licenses or of the terms of such licenses on our litigation. We may not be able to obtain licenses from other parties at a reasonable cost, or at all, which could cause us to expend substantial resources, or result in delays in, or the cancellation of, new product.
 
If we are unable to successfully protect our inventions through the issuance and enforcement of patents, our operating results could be adversely affected.
 
We have an active program to protect our proprietary inventions through the filing of patents. There can be no assurance, however, that:
 
  •  any current or future U.S. or foreign patent applications will be approved and not be challenged by third parties;
 
  •  our issued patents will protect our intellectual property and not be challenged by third parties;
 
  •  the validity of our patents will be upheld;
 
  •  our patents will not be declared unenforceable;
 
  •  the patents of others will not have an adverse effect on our ability to do business;
 
  •  Congress or the U.S. courts or foreign countries will not change the nature or scope of rights afforded patents or patent owners or alter in an adverse way the process for seeking patents;
 
  •  changes in law will not be implemented that will affect our ability to protect and enforce our patents and other intellectual property;
 
  •  new legal theories and strategies utilized by our competitors will not be successful;
 
  •  others will not independently develop similar or competing chip interfaces or design around any patents that may be issued to us; or
 
  •  factors such as difficulty in obtaining cooperation from inventors, pre-existing challenges or litigation, or license or other contract issues will not present additional challenges in securing protection with respect to patents and other intellectual property that we acquire.
 
If any of the above were to occur, our operating results could be adversely affected.


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Our inability to protect and own the intellectual property we create would cause our business to suffer.
 
We rely primarily on a combination of license, development and nondisclosure agreements, trademark, trade secret and copyright law, and contractual provisions to protect our non-patentable intellectual property rights. If we fail to protect these intellectual property rights, our licensees and others may seek to use our technology without the payment of license fees and royalties, which could weaken our competitive position, reduce our operating results and increase the likelihood of costly litigation. The growth of our business depends in large part on the use of our intellectual property in the products of third party manufacturers, and our ability to enforce intellectual property rights against them to obtain appropriate compensation. In addition, effective trade secret protection may be unavailable or limited in certain foreign countries. Although we intend to protect our rights vigorously, if we fail to do so, our business will suffer.
 
We rely upon the accuracy of our licensees’ recordkeeping, and any inaccuracies or payment disputes for amounts owed to us under our licensing agreements may harm our results of operations.
 
Many of our license agreements require our licensees to document the manufacture and sale of products that incorporate our technology and report this data to us on a quarterly basis. While licenses with such terms give us the right to audit books and records of our licensees to verify this information, audits rarely are undertaken because they can be expensive, time consuming, and potentially detrimental to our ongoing business relationship with our licensees. Therefore, we typically rely on the accuracy of the reports from licensees without independently verifying the information in them. Our failure to audit our licensees’ books and records may result in our receiving more or less royalty revenue than we are entitled to under the terms of our license agreements. If we conduct royalty audits in the future, such audits may trigger disagreements over contract terms with our licensees and such disagreements could hamper customer relations, divert the efforts and attention of our management from normal operations and impact our business operations and financial condition.
 
Any dispute regarding our intellectual property may require us to indemnify certain licensees, the cost of which could severely hamper our business operations and financial condition.
 
In any potential dispute involving our patents or other intellectual property, our licensees could also become the target of litigation. While we generally do not indemnify our licensees, some of our license agreements provide limited indemnities, and some require us to provide technical support and information to a licensee that is involved in litigation involving use of our technology. In addition, we may agree to indemnify others in the future. Any of these indemnification and support obligations could result in substantial expenses. In addition to the time and expense required for us to indemnify or supply such support to our licensees, a licensee’s development, marketing and sales of licensed semiconductors could be severely disrupted or shut down as a result of litigation, which in turn could severely hamper our business operations and financial condition as a result of lower or no royalty payments.
 
Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
 
None.


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Item 2.    Properties
 
As of December 31, 2010, we occupied offices in the leased facilities described below:
 
             
Number of
       
Offices
       
Under Lease   Location   Primary Use
 
 
3
    United States
Sunnyvale, CA (Headquarters)
Chapel Hill, NC
Brecksville, OH
 
Executive and administrative offices, research and development, sales and marketing and service functions

Research and development and prototyping facility
 
1
    Bangalore, India   Administrative offices, research and development and service functions
 
1
    Tokyo, Japan   Business development
 
1
    Taipei, Taiwan   Business development
 
1
    Seoul, Korea   Business development
 
1
    Pforzheim, Germany   Business development
 
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings
 
For the information required by this item regarding legal proceedings, see Note 15 “Litigation and Asserted Claims,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K.
 
Item 4.    Removed and Reserved
 
PART II
 
Item 5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
Our Common Stock is listed on The NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “RMBS.” The following table sets forth for the periods indicated the high and low sales price per share of our Common Stock as reported on The NASDAQ Global Select Market.
 
                                 
    Year Ended
  Year Ended
    December 31, 2010   December 31, 2009
    High   Low   High   Low
 
First Quarter
  $ 26.00     $ 16.00     $ 18.70     $ 5.99  
Second Quarter
  $ 25.50     $ 17.31     $ 19.65     $ 9.07  
Third Quarter
  $ 21.69     $ 16.76     $ 19.94     $ 14.33  
Fourth Quarter
  $ 22.80     $ 19.16     $ 25.54     $ 15.53  


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The graph below matches Rambus Inc.’s cumulative five-year total shareholder return on Common Stock with the cumulative total returns of The NASDAQ Composite Index and the RDG Semiconductor Composite Index. The graph tracks the performance of a $100 investment in our Common Stock and in each of the indexes (with the reinvestment of all dividends) from December 31, 2005 to December 31, 2010.
 
COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among Rambus Inc., The NASDAQ Composite Index
And the RDG Semiconductor Composite Index
 
(PERFORMANCE GRAPH)
 
$100 invested on 12/31/05 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends.
Fiscal year ending December 31.
 
Fiscal years ending:
 
                                                             
      12/05     12/06     12/07     12/08     12/09     12/10
Rambus Inc. 
      100.00         116.92         129.34         98.33         150.71         126.50  
NASDAQ Composite
      100.00         111.74         124.67         73.77         107.12         125.93  
RDG Semiconductor Composite
      100.00         94.27         106.42         53.83         88.82         101.70  
                                                             
 
The stock price performance included in this graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.
 
Information regarding our securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans will be included in Item 12, “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters,” of this report on Form 10-K.
 
As of January 31, 2011, there were 684 holders of record of our Common Stock. Since many of the shares of our Common Stock are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of beneficial stockholders represented by these record holders. We have never paid or declared any cash dividends on our Common Stock or other securities. However, in the future, we may plan to pay or declare cash dividends depending on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, business conditions and other factors.
 
Contingently Redeemable Common Stock
 
On January 19, 2010, pursuant to the terms of a Stock Purchase Agreement (the “Stock Purchase Agreement”), Samsung purchased for cash from us 9.6 million shares of our common stock (the “Shares”) with certain restrictions


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and put rights. The issuance of the Shares by us to Samsung was made through a private transaction. The Stock Purchase Agreement provides Samsung a one-time put right, beginning 18 months after the date of the Stock Purchase Agreement and extending to 19 months after the date of the Stock Purchase Agreement, to elect to put back to us up to 4.8 million of the Shares at the original issue price of $20.885 per share (for an aggregate purchase price of up to $100.0 million). The 4.8 million shares have been recorded as contingently redeemable common stock on the consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2010.
 
The Stock Purchase Agreement prohibits the transfer of the Shares by Samsung for 18 months after the date of the Stock Purchase Agreement, subject to certain exceptions. After expiration of the transfer restriction period on July 18, 2011, the Stock Purchase Agreement provides that Samsung may transfer a limited number of shares on a daily basis, provides us with a right of first offer for proposed transfers above such daily limits, and, if no sale occurs to us under the right of first offer, allows Samsung to transfer the Shares. Under the Stock Purchase Agreement, we have also agreed that after the transfer restriction period, Samsung will have certain rights to register the Shares for sale under the securities laws of the United States, subject to customary terms and conditions.
 
See Note 3, “Settlement Agreement with Samsung,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for further discussion.
 
Share Repurchase Program
 
In October 2001, our Board of Directors (the “Board”) approved a share repurchase program of our Common Stock, principally to reduce the dilutive effect of employee stock options. Under this program, the Board approved the authorization to repurchase up to 19.0 million shares of our outstanding Common Stock over an undefined period of time. On February 25, 2010, the Board approved a new share repurchase program authorizing the repurchase of up to an additional 12.5 million shares. Share repurchases under the program may be made through open market, established plan or privately negotiated transactions in accordance with all applicable securities laws, rules, and regulations. There is no expiration date applicable to the program. The new share repurchase program replaces the program authorized in October 2001.
 
On August 19, 2010, we entered into a share repurchase agreement (the “Share Repurchase Agreement”) with J.P. Morgan Securities Inc., as agent for JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association, London Branch (“JP Morgan”) to repurchase approximately $90.0 million of our Common Stock, as part of our share repurchase program. Under the Share Repurchase Agreement, we pre-paid to JP Morgan the $90.0 million purchase price in the third quarter of 2010 for the Common Stock and JP Morgan delivered to us approximately 4.8 million shares of Common Stock at an average price of $18.88 at the completion of the Share Repurchase Agreement in December 2010.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, we repurchased approximately 9.5 million shares of our Common Stock with an aggregate price of approximately $195.1 million, including the price paid pursuant to the Share Repurchase Agreement. As of December 31, 2010, we had repurchased a cumulative total of approximately 26.3 million shares of our Common Stock with an aggregate price of approximately $428.9 million since the commencement of the program in 2001. As of December 31, 2010, there remained an outstanding authorization to repurchase approximately 5.2 million shares of our outstanding Common Stock.
 
We record stock repurchases as a reduction to stockholders’ equity. We record a portion of the purchase price of the repurchased shares as an increase to accumulated deficit when the price of the shares repurchased exceeds the average original proceeds per share received from the issuance of Common Stock. During the year ended December 31, 2010, the cumulative price of the shares repurchased exceeded the proceeds received from the issuance of the same number of shares. The excess of $163.6 million was recorded as an increase to accumulated deficit for the year ended December 31, 2010. During the year ended December 31, 2009, we did not repurchase any Common Stock.
 


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                Total Number
    Maximum
       
                of Shares
    Number of
       
                Purchased as
    Shares that
       
                Part of
    May Yet be
       
                Publicly
    Purchased
       
    Total Number
    Average
    Announced
    Under the
       
    of Shares
    Price Paid
    Plans or
    Plans or
       
Period   Purchased     per Share     Programs     Programs     Total Paid  
 
Cumulative shares repurchased as of 12/31/2009
    16,810,950     $ 13.90       16,810,950       2,240,913     $ 233,756,155  
Additional authorization
                            12,500,000          
                                         
                              14,740,913          
2/1/2010 - 2/28/2010
    1,233,287     $ 21.47       1,233,287       13,507,626     $ 26,472,746  
4/1/2010 - 4/30/2010
    519,895     $ 24.46       519,895       12,987,731     $ 12,715,797  
5/1/2010 - 5/31/2010
    1,793,068     $ 23.70       1,793,068       11,194,663     $ 42,502,150  
6/1/2010 - 6/30/2010
    686,000     $ 19.82       686,000       10,508,663     $ 13,594,241  
8/1/2010 - 8/31/2010
    528,641     $ 18.58       528,641       9,980,022     $ 9,822,533  
12/1/2010 - 12/31/2010
    4,765,949     $ 18.88       4,765,949       5,214,073     $ 90,000,000  
                                         
Cumulative shares repurchased as of 12/31/2010
    26,337,790     $ 16.28       26,337,790             $ 428,863,622  
                                         
 
Item 6.    Selected Financial Data
 
The following selected consolidated financial data for and as of the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006 was derived from our consolidated financial statements. The summary consolidated selected financial data for and as of the years ended December 31, 2008, 2007 and 2006 has been adjusted as a result of the retrospective adoption on January 1, 2009 of Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) accounting guidance which clarifies the accounting for convertible debt instruments that may be settled in cash upon conversion, including partial cash settlement (“FASB convertible debt accounting guidance”). The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” and other financial data included elsewhere in this report. Our historical results of operations are not necessarily indicative of results of operations to be expected for any future period.
 
                                         
    Years Ended December 31,
    2010   2009   2008(1)(2)   2007(1)(2)   2006(1)(2)
        (In thousands, except per share amounts)    
 
Total revenue
  $ 323,390     $ 113,007     $ 142,494     $ 179,940     $ 195,324  
Net income (loss)
  $ 150,917     $ (92,186 )   $ (199,110 )   $ (34,221 )   $ (18,006 )
Net income (loss) per share:
                                       
Basic
  $ 1.34     $ (0.88 )   $ (1.90 )   $ (0.33 )   $ (0.17 )
Diluted
  $ 1.30     $ (0.88 )   $ (1.90 )   $ (0.33 )   $ (0.17 )
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
                                       
Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities
  $ 512,009     $ 460,193     $ 345,853     $ 440,882     $ 436,341  
Total assets
  $ 663,172     $ 555,869     $ 397,370     $ 617,963     $ 591,295  
Convertible notes
  $ 121,500     $ 248,044     $ 125,474     $ 135,214     $ 124,719  
Stockholders’ equity
  $ 334,783     $ 255,327     $ 232,941     $ 422,486     $ 404,247  
 
 
(1) Adjusted to reflect adoption of the FASB convertible debt accounting guidance. Refer to Note 19, “Retrospective Adoption of FASB Convertible Debt Accounting Guidance,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for further discussion.

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(2) The year ended December 31, 2008 includes adjustments for the FASB convertible debt accounting guidance to increase total assets by $480, decrease convertible notes by $11,476 and increase stockholders’ equity by $11,956. The year ended December 31, 2007 includes additional interest expense (including amortization of debt issuance costs) of $11,011, increase to benefit from income taxes of $4,454, increase to net loss of $6,557, increase to basic and diluted net loss per share of $0.06, decrease to total assets of $9,384, decrease to convertible notes of $24,786 and increase to stockholders’ equity of $15,402. The year ended December 31, 2006 includes additional interest expense (including amortization of debt issuance costs) of $10,196, increase to interest income and other income (expense), net of $3,158, increase to benefit from income taxes of $2,848, increase to net loss of $4,190, increase to basic and diluted net loss per share of $0.04, decrease to total assets of $13,322, decrease to convertible notes of $35,281 and increase to stockholders’ equity of $21,959.
 
Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
This report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. These statements relate to our expectations for future events and time periods. All statements other than statements of historical fact are statements that could be deemed to be forward-looking statements, including any statements regarding trends in future revenue or results of operations, gross margin or operating margin, expenses, earnings or losses from operations, synergies or other financial items; any statements of the plans, strategies and objectives of management for future operations; any statements concerning developments, performance or industry ranking; any statements regarding future economic conditions or performance; any statements regarding pending investigations, claims or disputes; any statements of expectation or belief; and any statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. Generally, the words “anticipate,” “believes,” “plans,” “expects,” “future,” “intends,” “may,” “should,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential,” “continue” and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements are based on current expectations, forecasts and assumptions and are subject to risks, uncertainties and changes in condition, significance, value and effect. As a result of the factors described herein, and in the documents incorporated herein by reference, including, in particular, those factors described under “Risk Factors,” we undertake no obligation to publicly disclose any revisions to these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances occurring subsequent to filing this report with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
 
Business Overview
 
We are a premier intellectual property and technology licensing company. Our primary focus is the creation, design, development and licensing of patented innovations, technologies and architectures that are foundational to nearly all digital electronics products and systems. Our patented innovations and technologies aim to improve the performance, power efficiency, time-to-market and cost-effectiveness of our customers’ products, components and systems offered and used in semiconductors, computers, mobile applications, gaming and graphics, consumer electronics, lighting displays and general lighting. By licensing our patented innovations and technologies, we hope to continuously enrich the end-user experience of the digital electronics products and systems marketed and sold by our customers and licensees. We believe we have established an unparalleled licensing platform and business model that will continue to foster the development of new foundational and leading innovations and technologies. As a result, our goal is to create significant licensing opportunities, and thereby perpetuate strong company operating performance and long term stockholder value.
 
While we have historically focused our efforts in developing and licensing patented innovations and technologies for the semiconductor industry, particularly in the area of chip interfaces, we have initiated diversification efforts to expand our portfolio of patented innovations and technologies into lighting and displays, mobile communications, and additional semiconductor technologies. We expect to continue this diversification initiative through the acquisition of assets and the hiring of the inventors, scientists and engineers who will lead the effort to further develop these patented innovations and technologies in these new areas of focus. During 2010, we initiated an internal structural reorganization to establish separate business groups for our semiconductor industry focused operations (SBG) and operations focused on new or emerging licensing opportunities (NBG) which includes our LDT group. We expect this internal realignment to help drive efficiencies in operations and optimize our licensing platform and business model as we expand and diversify into new markets. Segment information is not separately


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discussed below as the operating results for NBG did not meet the quantitative thresholds for segment reporting in 2010. For additional information concerning segment reporting, see Note 13, “Business Segments and Major Customers,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K.
 
The key elements of our strategy are as follows:
 
Innovate:   Develop and patent our innovative technology to provide fundamental competitive advantage when incorporated into semiconductors, and digital electronics products and systems.
 
Drive Adoption:   Communicate the advantages of our patented innovations and technologies to the industry and encourage its adoption through demonstrations and incorporation in the products of select customers.
 
Monetize:   License our patented inventions and technology solutions to customers for use in their semiconductor and system products.
 
As of December 31, 2010, our semiconductor, chip interface, lighting, display and other technologies are covered by approximately 1,180 U.S. and foreign patents. Additionally, we have approximately 850 patent applications pending. These patents and patent applications cover important inventions in memory and logic chip interfaces, optoelectronics, mobile applications and other technologies. Some of the patents and pending patent applications are derived from a common parent patent application or are foreign counterpart patent applications. We have a program to file applications for and obtain patents in the United States and in selected foreign countries where we believe filing for such protection is appropriate and would further our overall strategy and objectives. In some instances, obtaining appropriate levels of protection may involve prosecuting continuation and counterpart patent applications based on a common parent application. We believe that our patented innovations provide our customers means to achieve higher performance, improved power efficiency, lower risk, and greater cost-effectiveness in their digital electronics products and systems.
 
Our patented innovations and technologies are offered to our customers through either a patent license or a technology license. Our revenues are primarily derived from patent licenses, through which we provide a license to our broad portfolio of patented innovations primarily to semiconductor and system companies who use these innovations in the development and manufacture of their own products. Our patent licensing agreements may provide a license to all or part of our patent portfolio for a particular use, product or technology. The patent license essentially provides our customers with a defined right to use our patented innovations in the customer’s own digital electronics products and systems. Patent license agreements are generally structured with variable royalty payments, although some agreements include fixed payments over certain defined periods.
 
We also offer our customers technology licenses. We typically offer technology licenses to support the implementation and adoption of our patented innovations and technologies through know-how and technology transfers, product design, development, and system integration consulting and engineering services. Our technology license offerings also include a range of solutions developed by Rambus, which include “leadership” solutions (which are Rambus-proprietary solutions widely licensed to our customers) and industry-standard solutions that we provide to our customers under license for incorporation into our customers’ digital electronics products and systems. Due to the often complex nature of implementing state-of-the art technology, we also offer engineering services to our customers to help them successfully integrate our solutions into their digital electronics products and systems. These technology license agreements may have both a fixed price (non-recurring) component and ongoing royalties. Engineering services are generally offered on a fixed price basis. Further, under technology licenses, our customers typically receive licenses to our patents necessary to implement these solutions in their products with specific rights and restrictions to the applicable patents elaborated in their individual contracts with us.
 
Royalties represent a substantial majority of our total revenue. We derive the majority of our royalty revenue by licensing our broad portfolio of patents for chip interfaces to our customers. Such licenses may cover part or all of our patent portfolio. Leading semiconductor and system companies such as AMD, Fujitsu, Intel, Panasonic and Samsung have licensed our patents for use in their own products.
 
We also derive additional revenue by licensing a range of technology solutions including our leadership architectures and industry-standard solutions to customers for use in their semiconductor and system products. Our


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customers include leading companies such as Elpida, IBM, Panasonic, Samsung, Sony and Toshiba. Due to the complex nature of implementing our technologies, we provide engineering services under certain of these licenses to help our customers successfully integrate our technology solutions into their semiconductors and system products. Licensees also may receive, in addition to their technology license agreements, patent licenses as necessary to implement the technology in their products with specific rights and restrictions to the applicable patents elaborated in their individual contracts.
 
The remainder of our revenue is contract services revenue which includes license fees and engineering services fees. The timing and amounts invoiced to customers can vary significantly depending on specific contract terms and can therefore have a significant impact on deferred revenue or account receivables in any given period.
 
We intend to continue making significant expenditures associated with engineering, marketing, general and administration including litigation expenses, and expect that these costs and expenses will continue to be a significant percentage of revenue in future periods. Whether such expenses increase or decrease as a percentage of revenue will be substantially dependent upon the rate at which our revenue or expenses change.
 
Executive Summary
 
During 2010, we signed a significant settlement agreement with Samsung and also signed revenue contracts with AMD, Elpida and Renesas bringing Rambus into a profit position for the year ended December 31, 2010. See Note 3, “Settlement Agreement with Samsung,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for further discussion. We continue to pursue other revenue opportunities in order to grow our revenue. Additionally, in June 2010, we signed a broad licensing agreement for the use of our patented lighting innovations with GE Lighting, a unit of GE’s Appliances & Lighting business. We also purchased patents and businesses during 2010 as part of our ongoing acquisition activities to broaden our technology portfolio.
 
Research and development continues to play a key role in our efforts to maintain product innovations. Our engineering expenses for the year ended December 31, 2010 increased $25.5 million as compared to 2009 primarily due to increased headcount from our LDT group and the funding for our 2010 Corporate Incentive Plan (the “2010 CIP”) which includes the bonus related to the Samsung settlement. As a percentage of revenue, engineering expenses decreased for the year ended December 31, 2010 as compared to 2009. The decrease was due to higher revenue primarily attributed to the settlement with Samsung. Marketing, general and administrative expenses in aggregate decreased $8.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 as compared to 2009 primarily due to lower litigation expenses. Our higher revenue combined with the decrease in marketing, general and administrative expenses, has caused marketing, general and administrative expenses to decrease as a percentage of revenue. Additionally, for the year ended December 31, 2010, we incurred costs of restatement and related legal activities of $4.2 million primarily due to litigation expense associated with a private shareholder lawsuit related to the 2006-2007 stock option investigation.
 
Trends
 
There are a number of trends that may or will have a material impact on us in the future, including growing our lighting business, global economic conditions with the resulting impact on sales, continuing pursuit of litigation against companies that we believe have infringed our patented technologies and shifts in our overall effective tax rate.
 
We have a high degree of revenue concentration, with our top five licensees representing approximately 85%, 77% and 67% of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. As a result of our settlement with Samsung, Samsung accounted for a significant portion of our ongoing licensing revenue in 2010. For the year ended December 31, 2010, revenue from Samsung and Elpida, each accounted for 10% or more of our total revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2009, revenue from AMD, Fujitsu, NEC, Panasonic, and Toshiba, each accounted for 10% or more of our total revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2008, revenue from AMD, Elpida, Fujitsu, NEC, Panasonic, and Sony, each accounted for 10% or more of our total revenue. We expect to continue to experience significant revenue concentration for the foreseeable future.


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Many of our licensees have the right to cancel their licenses. The particular licensees which account for revenue concentration have varied from period to period as a result of the addition of new contracts, expiration of existing contracts, renewals of existing contracts, industry consolidation and the volumes and prices at which the licensees have recently sold licensed semiconductors to system companies. These variations are expected to continue in the foreseeable future.
 
The semiconductor industry is intensely competitive and highly cyclical. Our visibility with respect to future sales is very limited at this time. To the extent that macroeconomic fluctuations negatively affect our principal licensees, the demand for our technology may be significantly and adversely impacted and we may experience substantial period-to-period fluctuations in our operating results. The recent downturn in worldwide economic conditions also threatens the financial health of our commercial counterparties, including companies with whom we have entered into licensing arrangements, settlement agreements or that have been subject to litigation judgments that provide for payments to us, and their ability to fulfill their financial and other obligations to us. Some of our existing patent licensees have fixed royalty payments which are not impacted by the recent economic downturn. Royalty payments from the remaining licensees are related to variable royalty agreements which have been impacted by the recent economic conditions. Current market indicators are mixed, but there are some recent signs of some stabilization. However, there continue to be indications that global demand will not quickly recover for the next few years. Such lower demand levels may adversely impact our revenue and profitability. See Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”
 
The royalties we receive are partly a function of the adoption of our chip interfaces by system companies. Many system companies purchase semiconductors containing our chip interfaces from our licensees and do not have a direct contractual relationship with us. Our licensees generally do not provide us with details as to the identity or volume of licensed semiconductors purchased by particular system companies. As a result, we face difficulty in analyzing the extent to which our future revenue will be dependent upon particular system companies. System companies face intense competitive pressure in their markets, which are characterized by extreme volatility, frequent new product introductions and rapidly shifting consumer preferences. There can be no assurance as to the unit volumes of licensed semiconductors that will be purchased by these companies in the future or as to the level of royalty-bearing revenue that our licensees will receive from sales to these companies. Additionally, there can be no assurance that a significant number of other system companies will adopt our chip interfaces or that our dependence upon particular system companies will decrease in the future. See Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”
 
The display industry is also intensely competitive and highly cyclical. We believe the potential percentage of transition to LED lightguides from cold cathode fluorescent lights (“CCFL”) lightguides could be up to 100% for cellular phones and notebook computers and could reach up to 50% for display monitors and LCD televisions in 2011. The tablet market is growing rapidly as a new category that primarily uses LED lightguides to achieve slim designs. Our LDT group has numerous patents in edge lit LED lightguide technology. Our plans are to license our technology to key companies that use LED edge lit display products. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in our efforts to obtain licensees for our LED edge lit technology. Additionally, there are competing technologies, such as the active matrix organic light emitting diode, that do not use LED edge lit lightguides which may limit the future market opportunity for our technology.
 
The highly fragmented general lighting industry is undergoing a fundamental shift from incandescent technology to CCFL and LED driven technology by the need to reduce energy consumption and to comply with government mandates. LED lighting typically saves 40% of the energy costs as compared to existing installed lighting. Our LDT group has numerous patents in LED edge lit lightguide technology which can be applied in the design of next generation LED lighting products. While our goal is to be a major player in the general lighting industry with our technology and have established a technology center in Brecksville, Ohio, there are no assurances that we will be successful in our efforts. The market adoption of our technology may face delays in design, government mandates in specification, material shortages and manufacturing delays within the supply base and in overall market acceptance. Additionally, there are competing design approaches and technologies, such as organic light emitting diode, that may also affect our ability to obtain additional licensees.
 
Our revenue from companies headquartered outside of the United States accounted for approximately 93%, 83% and 84% of our total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. We expect


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that revenue derived from international licensees will continue to represent a significant portion of our total revenue in the future. To date, all of the revenue from international licensees have been denominated in U.S. dollars. However, to the extent that such licensees’ sales to their customers are not denominated in U.S. dollars, any royalties that we receive as a result of such sales could be subject to fluctuations in currency exchange rates. In addition, if the effective price of licensed semiconductors sold by our foreign licensees were to increase as a result of fluctuations in the exchange rate of the relevant currencies, demand for licensed semiconductors could fall, which in turn would reduce our royalties. We do not use financial instruments to hedge foreign exchange rate risk.
 
For additional information concerning international revenue, see Note 13, “Business Segments and Major Customers,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K.
 
Engineering costs as a percentage of net sales decreased in the year ended December 31, 2010 as compared to the prior year. In the near term, we expect engineering costs to be lower than in 2010 as the employee bonus related to the Samsung settlement was a one-time event in 2010. However, we intend to continue to make investments in the infrastructure and technologies required to maintain our product innovations in semiconductor and lighting technologies and, as a result, our head count and infrastructure expenses are expected to increase.
 
Marketing, general and administrative expenses in the aggregate and as a percentage of net sales decreased in the year ended December 31, 2010 as compared to the prior year. Historically, we have been involved in litigation stemming from the unlicensed use of our inventions. Our litigation expenses have been high and difficult to predict and future litigation expenses could be significant, volatile and difficult to predict. If we are successful in the litigation and/or related licensing, our revenue could be substantially higher in the future; if we are unsuccessful, our revenue may not grow or may decrease. Furthermore, our success in litigation matters pending before courts and regulatory bodies that relate to our intellectual property rights have impacted and will likely continue to impact our ability and the terms upon which we are able to negotiate new or renegotiate existing licenses for our technology. We will continue to pursue litigation against those companies that have infringed our patented technologies, which in turn will continue to increase marketing, general and administrative expenses as litigation expenses will continue to increase until such litigation is resolved.
 
As we continue to pursue litigation and invest in research and development projects and if we experience lower revenue from our licensees in the future, our cash from operations will be negatively affected.


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Results of Operations
 
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the percentage of total revenue represented by certain items reflected in our consolidated statements of operations:
 
                         
    Years Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008  
 
Revenue:
                       
Royalties
    99.0 %     95.6 %     89.1 %
Contract revenue
    1.0 %     4.4 %     10.9 %
                         
Total revenue
    100.0 %     100.0 %     100.0 %
                         
Operating costs and expenses:
                       
Cost of revenue*
    2.1 %     6.1 %     15.0 %
Research and development*
    28.7 %     59.5 %     53.5 %
Marketing, general and administrative*
    36.9 %     113.4 %     87.1 %
Costs (recoveries) of restatement and related legal activities, net
    1.3 %     (11.9 )%     2.3 %
Gain from settlement
    (39.2 )%     %     %
Restructuring costs*
    %     %     2.9 %
Impairment of intangible asset
    %     %     1.5 %
                         
Total operating costs and expenses
    29.8 %     167.1 %     162.3 %
                         
Operating income (loss)
    70.2 %     (67.1 )%     (62.3 )%
Interest income and other income, net
    0.3 %     3.6 %     10.7 %
Interest expense on convertible notes
    (6.1 )%     (18.6 )%     (8.3 )%
                         
Interest and other income (expense), net
    (5.8 )%     (15.0 )%     2.4 %
                         
Income (loss) before income taxes
    64.4 %     (82.1 )%     (59.9 )%
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes
    17.7 %     (0.5 )%     79.8 %
                         
Net income (loss)
    46.7 %     (81.6 )%     (139.7 )%
                         
                       
* Includes stock-based compensation:
                       
Cost of revenue
    0.1 %     0.9 %     3.6 %
Research and development
    3.1 %     8.6 %     9.5 %
Marketing, general and administrative
    6.2 %     18.5 %     13.0 %
Restructuring costs
    %     %     0.4 %
 
                                         
    Years Ended December 31,     2009 to 2010
    2008 to 2009
 
    2010     2009     2008     Change     Change  
    (Dollars in millions)              
 
Total Revenue
                                       
Royalties
  $ 320.2     $ 108.0     $ 126.9       196.4 %     (14.9 )%
Contract revenue
    3.2       5.0       15.6       (35.4 )%     (67.9 )%
                                         
Total revenue
  $ 323.4     $ 113.0     $ 142.5       186.2 %     (20.7 )%
                                         
 
Royalty Revenue
 
Patent Licenses
 
Our patent royalties increased approximately $209.1 million to $288.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 from $79.3 million for the same period in 2009. The increase was primarily due to the revenue recognized from the agreements signed with Samsung and Elpida during 2010.


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Our patent royalties decreased approximately $21.2 million to $79.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2009 from $100.5 million for the same period in 2008. The decrease was primarily due to the expiration of the Elpida licensing agreement in the first quarter of 2008, the one-time receipt of previously withheld royalties from the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) Disposition Order in 2008 and lower variable patent royalty payments received in 2009, as a result of, among other things, lower product shipment volumes reported by customers.
 
In March 2010, AMD elected to exercise its right to renew the Rambus-AMD Patent License Agreement through the third quarter of 2015. The original term of AMD’s agreement ran through the end of September 2010.
 
In December 2010, Elpida renewed its patent license agreement. The effective date of the agreement is January 1, 2010 and the expiration date of the term license is January 1, 2015.
 
In December 2010, Renesas renewed its patent license agreement. The effective date of the agreement is April 1, 2010 and the expiration date of the term license is April 1, 2015.
 
We are in negotiations with prospective licensees as well as existing licensees regarding renewals. We expect patent royalties will continue to vary from period to period based on our success in renewing existing license agreements and adding new licensees, as well as the level of variation in our licensees’ reported shipment volumes, sales price and mix, offset in part by the proportion of licensee payments that are fixed.
 
Technology Licenses
 
Royalties from technology licenses increased approximately $3.1 million to $31.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 from $28.7 million for the same period in 2009. The increase was primarily due to higher royalties reported from increased shipments related to DDR2 technologies and higher royalties from XDR tm DRAM associated with increased shipments of the Sony PlayStation ® 3 product, partially offset by lower royalties from RDRAM tm controllers in the first half of 2010 due to a one-time catch-up royalty payment for the Sony PlayStation ® 2 product in the second quarter of 2009.
 
Royalties from technology licenses increased approximately $2.3 million to $28.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2009 from $26.4 million for the same period in 2008. The increase was primarily due to higher royalties reported from increased shipments related to DDR2 technologies and a one-time catch-up royalty payment in the second quarter of 2009 related to RDRAM tm controllers associated with shipments of the Sony PlayStation ® 2 product, offset by decreased royalties from XDR tm DRAM associated with decreased shipments of the Sony PLAYSTATION ® 3 product.
 
In the future, we expect technology royalties will continue to vary from period to period based on our licensees’ shipment volumes, sales prices, and product mix.
 
Contract Revenue
 
Contract revenue decreased approximately $1.8 million to $3.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 from $5.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. The decrease was primarily due to fewer new technology development contracts and decrease in work performed on existing technology development contracts.
 
Contract revenue decreased approximately $10.6 million to $5.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2009 from $15.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2008. The decrease is due to fewer new technology development contracts, decrease in work performed on existing technology development contracts, as well as decreased revenue from reseller arrangements.
 
We believe that contract revenue recognized will continue to fluctuate over time based on our ongoing contractual requirements, the amount of work performed, the timing of completing engineering deliverables, and by changes to work required, as well as new technology development contracts booked in the future.


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Engineering costs:
 
                                         
    Years Ended December 31,     2009 to 2010
    2008 to 2009
 
    2010     2009     2008     Change     Change  
    (Dollars in millions)              
 
Engineering costs
                                       
Cost of revenue
  $ 6.7     $ 5.9     $ 16.1       15.2 %     (63.6 )%
Stock-based compensation
    0.2       1.0       5.2       (82.7 )%     (80.7 )%
                                         
Total cost of revenue
    6.9       6.9       21.3       0.9 %     (67.7 )%
                                         
Research and development
    82.5       57.5       62.7       43.5 %     (8.3 )%
Stock-based compensation
    10.2       9.7       13.5       4.6 %     (28.0 )%
                                         
Total research and development
    92.7       67.2       76.2       37.8 %     (11.8 )%
                                         
Total engineering costs
  $   99.6     $   74.1     $  97.5       34.4 %     (24.0 )%
                                         
 
Engineering costs are allocated between cost of revenue and research and development expenses. Cost of revenue reflects the portion of the total engineering costs which are specifically devoted to individual licensee development and support services as well as amortization expense related to various acquired intellectual property for patent licensing. The balance of engineering costs, incurred for the development of generally applicable chip interface technologies, is charged to research and development. In a given period, the allocation of engineering costs between these two components is a function of the timing of the development and implementation schedules of individual licensee contracts.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010 as compared to the same period in 2009, total engineering costs increased 34.4% primarily due to the increase in headcount from our LDT group and the funding for our 2010 CIP, which includes the employee bonus related to the Samsung settlement, increase in patent research related costs and additional amortization expense related to intangible assets acquired from GLT.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009 as compared to the same period in 2008, total engineering costs decreased primarily due to lower headcount and the related decrease in salary, benefits, allocations and stock based compensation expenses as well as decreases in consulting and travel and entertainment costs as a result of our cost reduction initiatives that commenced in the second half of 2008.
 
In the near term, we expect engineering costs to be lower than in 2010 as the employee bonus related to the Samsung settlement was a one-time event in 2010. However, we intend to continue to make investments in the infrastructure and technologies required to maintain our product innovation in semiconductor and lighting technologies and, as a result, our headcount and infrastructure costs are expected to increase.
 
Marketing, general and administrative costs:
 
                                         
    Years Ended December 31,     2009 to 2010
    2008 to 2009
 
    2010     2009     2008     Change     Change  
    (Dollars in millions)              
 
Marketing, general and administrative costs
                                       
Marketing, general and administrative costs
  $ 76.6     $ 51.8     $ 49.9       47.7 %     3.8 %
Litigation expense
    22.7       55.5       55.7       (59.1 )%     (0.3 )%
Stock-based compensation
    20.2       20.9       18.5       (3.2 )%     12.8 %
                                         
Total marketing, general and administrative costs
  $ 119.5     $ 128.2     $ 124.1       (6.8 )%     3.3 %
                                         


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Marketing, general and administrative expenses include expenses and costs associated with trade shows, public relations, advertising, litigation, general legal, insurance and other marketing and administrative efforts. Litigation expenses are a significant portion of our marketing, general and administrative expenses and can vary significantly from quarter to quarter. Consistent with our business model, our licensing and marketing activities aim to develop or strengthen relationships with potential and current licensees. In addition, we work with current licensees through marketing, sales and technical efforts to drive adoption of their products, that use our innovations and solutions, by system companies. Due to the long business development cycles we face and the semi-fixed nature of marketing, general and administrative expenses in a given period, these expenses generally do not correlate to the level of revenue in that period or in recent or future periods.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010 as compared to 2009, total marketing, general and administrative costs decreased primarily due to lower litigation expenses. Non-litigation related marketing, general and administrative costs increased for the year ended December 31, 2010 primarily due to funding for our 2010 CIP, which includes the employee bonus related to the Samsung settlement, increased consulting fees, increased general legal expenses and increased headcount in corporate development commencing in 2009 as a result of our strategic initiatives to identify and acquire additional technology opportunities.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009 as compared to 2008, total marketing, general and administrative costs were higher due primarily to ongoing patent acquisition activities in 2009, higher headcount in corporate development as a result of our strategic initiatives related to our investing activities, increased stock-based compensation expenses primarily related to nonvested equity awards granted during late 2008 and early 2009, and higher allocated costs. These increases were offset by decreases in depreciation expenses, rent and facilities expenses and overall marketing expenses due primarily to our cost reduction initiatives taken in 2008. Litigation expenses remained relatively flat from 2008 to 2009 as we continued to pursue litigation against those companies that have infringed on our patented technologies.
 
In the future, marketing, general and administrative costs will vary from period to period based on the trade shows, advertising, legal, acquisition and other marketing and administrative activities undertaken, and the change in sales, marketing and administrative headcount in any given period. Litigation expenses are expected to vary from period to period due to the variability of litigation activities.
 
Costs (recoveries) of restatement and related legal activities, net:
 
                                         
    Years Ended December 31,     2009 to 2010
    2008 to 2009
 
    2010     2009     2008     Change     Change  
    (Dollars in millions)              
 
Costs (recoveries) of restatement and related legal activities, net
  $  4.2     $ (13.5 )   $  3.3       NM*       NM*  
                                         
 
 
* NM — percentage is not meaningful as the change is too large
 
Costs (recoveries) of restatement and related legal activities, net, consist primarily of investigation, audit, legal and other professional fees related to the 2006-2007 stock option investigation and the filing of the restated financial statements and related litigation.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, costs of restatement and related legal activities, net, were $4.2 million primarily due to litigation expense associated with a private shareholder lawsuit related to the 2006-2007 stock option investigation. In 2009, we recorded reimbursements of $12.3 million from the insurance carriers and received $4.5 million from former executives as part of their settlement agreements with us in connection with the derivative and class action lawsuits in 2009.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, recoveries of restatement and related legal activities, net, were $13.5 million due primarily to recognition of insurance settlements of $12.3 million from the insurance carriers and the receipt of $4.5 million from former executives as part of their settlement agreements with us in connection with the derivative and class action lawsuits. The $16.8 million was recorded as recoveries of restatement and related legal activities. Until all the litigation and related issues are resolved, we anticipate that there could be additional amounts relating to these matters in the future.


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Gain from settlement:
 
                                         
    Years Ended December 31,     2009 to 2010
    2008 to 2009
 
    2010     2009     2008     Change     Change  
    (Dollars in millions)              
 
Gain from settlement
  $ 126.8     $     $       N/A*       N/A*  
                                         
 
 
* N/A — not applicable
 
The settlement with Samsung is a multiple element arrangement for accounting purposes. For a multiple element arrangement, we are required to determine the fair value of the elements. We considered several factors in determining the accounting fair value of the elements of the settlement with Samsung which included a third party valuation using an income approach, the Black-Scholes option pricing model and a residual approach (collectively the “Fair Value”). The total gain from settlement is $133.0 million of which $126.8 million was recognized for the year ended December 31, 2010. The gain from settlement represents the Fair Value of the cash consideration allocated to the resolution of the antitrust litigation settlement and the residual value of other elements.
 
Interest and other income (expense), net:
 
                                         
    Years Ended December 31,     2009 to 2010
    2008 to 2009
 
    2010     2009     2008     Change     Change  
    (Dollars in millions)              
 
Interest income and other income, net
  $ 0.9     $ 4.1     $ 15.2       (78.9 )%     (73.1 )%
Interest expense on convertible notes
  $ (19.7 )   $ (21.0 )   $ (11.8 )     (6.0 )%     77.5 %
                                         
Interest and other income (expense), net
  $ (18.8 )   $ (16.9 )   $ 3.4       11.7 %     NM*  
                                         
 
 
* NM — percentage is not meaningful as the change is too large
 
Interest income and other income, net, consists primarily of interest income generated from investments in high quality fixed income securities, offset by interest expense in connection with our imputed facility lease obligations.
 
Following the substantial completion of construction in the fourth quarter of 2010, we occupied our Sunnyvale and Brecksville facilities. In connection with the application of FASB authoritative guidance to our leases of the new facilities, we are deemed, in substance, to be the owner of the landlord’s buildings, and therefore the estimated fair value of our portion of the buildings is required to be capitalized on our books as a non-cash transaction, offset by a corresponding imputed financing obligation on our balance sheet. The imputed financing obligations are amortized using the effective interest method with the imputed interest rate of approximately 10%. For the year ended December 31, 2010, we recognized $0.4 million of interest expense in connection with the imputed financing obligations in our statement of operations. See Note 7, “Commitments and Contingencies,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for additional details.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009 as compared to the same period in 2008, the decrease in interest income and other income, net, was primarily due to lower yields on invested balances.
 
Interest expense on convertible notes consists of non-cash interest expense related to the amortization of the debt discount on the zero coupon convertible senior notes due February 1, 2010 (the “2010 Notes”) and the 2014 Notes as well as the coupon interest related to the 2014 Notes. We expect interest expense to increase steadily as the 2014 Notes reach maturity. See Note 14 “Convertible Notes,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for additional details.


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Provision for (benefit from) income taxes:
 
                                         
    Years Ended December 31,     2009 to 2010
    2008 to 2009
 
    2010     2009     2008     Change     Change  
    (Dollars in millions)              
 
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes
  $   57.1     $   (0.5 )   $ 113.8       NM*       NM*  
                                         
Effective tax rate
    27.5 %     0.6 %     (133.4 )%                
 
 
* NM — percentage is not meaningful as the change is too large
 
Our effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2010 is lower than the U.S. statutory tax rate applied to our pretax income due to a reduction of the valuation allowance on our U.S. net deferred tax assets, foreign withholding taxes and certain foreign losses with no current tax benefit recorded. Our effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2009 was lower than the U.S. statutory tax rate applied to our pretax loss primarily due to a full valuation allowance on our U.S. net deferred tax assets, foreign income taxes and state income taxes, partially offset by refundable research and development tax credits and carryback of net operating loss. Our effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2008 was lower than the U.S. statutory tax rate applied to our pretax loss primarily due to the establishment of a full valuation allowance on our U.S. net deferred tax assets.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, we continued to maintain a full valuation allowance against our U.S. net deferred tax assets. Management periodically evaluates the realizability of our net deferred tax assets based on all available evidence, both positive and negative. The realization of net deferred tax assets is dependent on our ability to generate sufficient future taxable income during periods prior to the expiration of tax statutes to fully utilize these assets. Based on all available evidence, we determined that it was not more likely than not that the deferred tax assets would be realized. Should we achieve sustained taxable income in the future, we would release the valuation allowance to recognize the deferred tax assets consisting of future tax deductions, net operating loss and credit carryforwards which provide a valuable benefit to us.
 
Restructuring costs:
 
                                         
    Years Ended
             
    December 31,     2009 to 2010
    2008 to 2009
 
    2010     2009     2008     Change     Change  
    (Dollars in millions)              
 
Restructuring costs
  $   —     $   —     $   4.2       N/A*       N/A*  
                                         
 
 
* N/A — not applicable
 
During the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, we did not incur any costs associated with restructuring activities. During the year ended December 31, 2008, we initiated a workforce reduction in certain areas of excess capacity. The cash severance, including continuance of certain employee benefits, totaled approximately $3.6 million and non-cash employee severance was approximately $0.5 million of stock-based compensation expense. We also leased a facility in Mountain View, California, through November 11, 2009, which we vacated during the fourth quarter of 2008 as a result of the restructuring measures. This facility was being subleased at a rate equal to our rent associated with the facility and, as a result no restructuring charge was recorded. The total restructuring charge for the year ended December 31, 2008 was approximately $4.2 million. Of the total cash portion, approximately $3.5 million of severance and benefits was paid during 2008 and the remaining $0.1 million of severance and benefits was paid during 2009.
 
Impairment of intangible asset:
 
                                         
    Years Ended
             
    December 31,     2009 to 2010
    2008 to 2009
 
    2010     2009     2008     Change     Change  
    (Dollars in millions)              
 
Impairment of intangible asset
  $   —     $   —     $   2.2       N/A*       N/A*  
                                         
 
 
* N/A — not applicable


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During the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, we did not impair any of our intangible assets. In 2008, we determined that approximately $2.2 million of our intangible assets had no alternative future use and were impaired as a result of a customer’s change in technology requirements. The impairment of the intangible asset related to a contractual relationship acquired in the Velio acquisition during December 2003.
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
                 
    December 31,
    December 31,
 
    2010     2009  
    (In millions)  
 
Cash and cash equivalents
  $ 215.3     $ 289.1  
Marketable securities
    296.7       171.1  
                 
Total cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities
  $ 512.0     $ 460.2  
                 
 
                         
    Years Ended December 31,
    2010   2009   2008
    (In millions)
 
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
  $ 235.2     $ (40.6 )   $ (38.5 )
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities
  $ (181.5 )   $ 24.5     $ 82.7  
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
  $ (127.5 )   $ 188.9     $ (47.5 )
 
Liquidity
 
Our management continues to believe that total cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities will continue at adequate levels to finance our operations, projected capital expenditures and commitments for the next twelve months. Cash needs for 2010 were funded primarily from operating activities due to the settlement with Samsung as well as financing activities due to proceeds from issuance of common stock pursuant to the Stock Purchase Agreement with Samsung and from the issuance of common stock under our equity incentive plans.
 
Operating Activities
 
Cash provided by operating activities of $235.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2010 was primarily attributable to the signing of Samsung and Elpida. In total, Samsung and Elpida provided approximately $300.2 million of net operating cash flow after applicable foreign tax withholdings. Additionally cash provided by operating activities included increases in accrued salaries due to the 2010 CIP and bonus related to the Samsung Settlement which was offset by decreases in accrued litigation and accounts payable.
 
Cash used in operating activities of $40.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2009 was primarily attributable to the net loss adjusted for certain non-cash items including stock-based compensation expense, non-cash interest expense, depreciation and amortization expense. Changes in operating assets and liabilities which included decreases in accrued litigation expenses due to recognition of proceeds of $5.0 million from an insurance company related to the derivative and class action lawsuits offset by increases in accounts payable due to the timing of vendor payments.
 
Cash used in operating activities of $38.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2008 was primarily attributable to the net loss for the period adjusted for non-cash items, including the tax provision related to the deferred tax asset valuation allowance, stock-based compensation expense, non-cash interest expense, depreciation and amortization expense, impairment of an asset, offset by gain on repurchase of convertible notes and recoveries of restatement and related legal activities. The change in operating assets and liabilities for the year ended December 31, 2008 was primarily due to a decrease in accrued litigation expenses due to payments related to the class action lawsuit settlement.
 
Investing Activities
 
Cash used in investing activities of approximately $181.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2010 primarily consisted of purchases of available-for-sale marketable securities of $428.8 million, partially offset by


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proceeds from the maturities of available-for-sale marketable securities of $296.6 million and proceeds from the sale of marketable securities of $1.8 million. We also purchased patents and businesses for an aggregate price of approximately $24.8 million. Additionally, we paid $26.7 million for the build-out of the facilities in Sunnyvale, California and Brecksville, Ohio as well as to acquire computer software, computer hardware and machinery and equipment.
 
Cash provided by investing activities of approximately $24.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2009 primarily consisted of proceeds from the maturities of available-for-sale marketable securities of $240.9 million, partially offset by purchases of available-for-sale marketable securities of $183.2 million. In December 2009, we paid $26.0 million in a business combination to acquire technology and a portfolio of advanced lighting and optoelectronics patents from GLT. Additionally, we paid $2.7 million to acquire property, plant and equipment, primarily computer software, and $2.5 million for intangible assets. We also made a $2.0 million investment in a non-marketable equity security of a technology company.
 
Cash provided by investing activities of approximately $82.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2008 primarily consisted of proceeds from the maturities of available-for-sale marketable securities of $430.8 million and proceeds from sale of marketable securities of $25.0 million, partially offset by purchases of available-for-sale marketable securities of $363.0 million. Additionally, we paid $9.9 million to acquire property and equipment, primarily computer equipment and computer software licenses.
 
Financing Activities
 
Cash used in financing activities was $127.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2010 was primarily due to the payment upon maturity of $137.0 million in face value of 2010 Notes and stock repurchased with an aggregate price of $195.1 million under our share repurchase program, which includes the shares purchased under Share Repurchase Agreement with J.P. Morgan, offset by proceeds received of $192.0 million from the issuance of common stock pursuant to the Stock Purchase Agreement with Samsung. Additionally, we received approximately $16.5 million from the issuance of common stock under equity incentive plans.
 
Cash provided by financing activities was $188.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2009. We received proceeds of $168.2 million from the issuance of 2014 Notes. Additionally, we received approximately $20.7 million from the issuance of common stock under equity incentive plans.
 
Cash used in financing activities was $47.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2008. We repurchased stock with an aggregate price of $49.2 million under our share repurchase program. Additionally, we repurchased approximately $23.1 million in face value of our zero coupon convertible senior notes for $18.7 million. We also received approximately $21.7 million from the issuance of common stock under equity incentive plans. In addition, we paid $1.3 million under installment payment plans used to acquire software license agreements.
 
We currently anticipate that existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities balances and cash flows from operations will be adequate to meet our cash needs for at least the next 12 months, including any cash needs to purchase the shares of contingently redeemable common stock that may be put back to us by Samsung in 2011. In February 2010, we satisfied our requirement to pay the 2010 Notes with an aggregate principal amount of $137.0 million. We do not anticipate any liquidity constraints as a result of either the current credit environment or investment fair value fluctuations. We have the ability to hold and we believe that we can recover the amortized cost of our investments. There is no evidence of impairment due to credit losses in our portfolio. We continually monitor the credit risk in our portfolio and mitigate our credit risk exposures in accordance with our policies. We may also incur additional expenditures related to future potential restructuring activities. As described elsewhere in this “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we are involved in ongoing litigation related to our intellectual property and our past stock option investigation. Any adverse settlements or judgments in any of this litigation could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, cash balances and cash flows in the period in which such events occur.


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Contractual Obligations
 
On December 15, 2009, we entered into a definitive triple net space lease agreement with MT SPE, LLC (the “Landlord”) whereby we lease approximately 125,000 square feet of office space located at 1050 Enterprise Way in Sunnyvale, California (the “Sunnyvale Lease”). The office space is used for our corporate headquarters, as well as engineering, marketing and administrative operations and activities. We moved to the new premises in the fourth quarter of 2010 following substantial completion of leasehold improvements. The Sunnyvale Lease has a term of 120 months from the commencement date. The initial annual base rent is $3.7 million, subject to a full abatement of rent for the first six months of the Sunnyvale Lease term, but with the rent for the seventh month paid in December 2009 in order to gain access to the building. The annual base rent increases each year to certain fixed amounts over the course of the term as set forth in the Sunnyvale Lease and will be $4.8 million in the tenth year. In addition to the base rent, we also pay operating expenses, insurance expenses, real estate taxes and a management fee. We have two options to extend the Sunnyvale Lease for a period of 60 months each and a one-time option to terminate the Sunnyvale Lease after 84 months in exchange for an early termination fee.
 
Since certain improvements we constructed are considered structural in nature and we are responsible for any cost overruns, for accounting purposes, we are treated in substance as the owner of the construction project during the construction period. Accordingly, as of December 31, 2009, we have capitalized $25.1 million in property, plant and equipment based on the estimated fair value of the portion of the unfinished building along with a corresponding imputed financing obligation for the same amount. The fair value was determined as of December 31, 2009 using level 3 fair value inputs (defined as prices or valuation techniques that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable (i.e., supported by little or no market activity)) and the cost approach which measures the value of an asset as the cost to reconstruct or replace it with another asset of like utility.
 
Following substantial completion of construction in the fourth quarter of 2010, we occupied the building. At completion, we concluded that we retained sufficient continuing involvement to preclude de-recognition of the building under the FASB authoritative guidance applicable to the sale leasebacks of real estate. As such, we continue to account for the building as owned real estate and to record an imputed financing obligation for our obligation to the legal owner. In addition, we capitalized $1.5 million of interest on the building with a corresponding imputed financing obligation for the same amount.
 
Pursuant to the terms of the Sunnyvale Lease, the landlord has agreed to reimburse us approximately $9.1 million, of which $0.3 million was received in 2010. We expect the remaining $8.8 million to be received in 2011. We recognized the $0.3 million reimbursement as additional imputed financing obligation under the FASB authoritative guidance as such payment from the landlord is deemed to be an imputed financing obligation. Monthly lease payments on the facility are allocated between the land element of the lease (which is accounted for as an operating lease) and the imputed financing obligation. The imputed financing obligation is amortized using the effective interest method and the interest rate determined in accordance with the requirements of sale leaseback accounting. For the year ended December 31, 2010, we recognized in its statement of operations $0.4 million of interest expense in connection with the imputed financing obligation. At December 31, 2010, the imputed financing obligation balance in connection with the new facility was $27.3 million, of which $0.2 million was classified under other accrued liabilities in the current liabilities section and $27.1 million was classified under long-term imputed financing obligation. At the end of the initial ten year lease term, should we decide not to renew the lease, we would reverse the equal amounts of the net book value of the building and the corresponding imputed financing obligation.
 
On March 8, 2010, we entered into a lease agreement with Fogg-Brecksville Development Co. (the “Ohio Landlord”) for 24,814 square feet of space consisting of 7,158 square feet of office area and 17,656 square feet of warehouse area, located in Brecksville, Ohio (the “Ohio Lease”). We moved to the new premises at the end of the third quarter of 2010 following substantial completion of leasehold improvements. The warehouse area was converted into office space and manufacturing space. The office space is used for the LDT group’s engineering activities while the manufacturing space is used for the manufacturer of prototypes for the LDT group. The Ohio Lease has a term of 60 months from the commencement date which is the earlier of (i) the date upon which we first take occupancy of the premises once the construction work is completed or (ii) the first day of the month following completion and notification by the lessor to us of completion of construction of the building. The initial annual base


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rent is approximately $136,000. In addition to the base rent, we also pay operating expenses, insurance expenses, real estate taxes and a management fee. We have an option to extend the Ohio Lease for an additional period of 60 months.
 
Since certain improvements we constructed are considered structural in nature and we are responsible for any cost overruns, for accounting purposes, we are treated in substance as the owner of the construction project during the construction period. Accordingly, as of March 31, 2010, we have capitalized $0.8 million in property, plant and equipment based on the estimated fair value of the portion of the unfinished building along with a corresponding financing obligation. The fair value was determined as of March 31, 2010 using level 3 fair value inputs and the cost approach which measures the value of an asset as the cost to reconstruct or replace it with another asset of like utility.
 
Following completion of construction in the fourth quarter of 2010, we occupied the Brecksville facility. At completion, we concluded that we retained sufficient continuing involvement to preclude de-recognition of the building under the FASB authoritative guidance applicable to the sale leasebacks of real estate. As such, we continue to account for the building as owned real estate and to record an imputed financing obligation for our obligation to the legal owner. At the end of the lease term in 2015, we have an option to renew the lease for an additional 60 months. As a result of the significant amount of construction costs, we currently would expect to renew the lease for an additional 60 months so the lease term for accounting purposes will be the period of intended use of ten years. The lease payments are recorded as interest expense using the effective interest method over the term of the lease and the building is depreciated on a straight-line basis over a period of 15 years. For the year ended December 31, 2010, we recognized in our statement of operations $29 thousand of interest expense in connection with the imputed financing obligation. At December 31, 2010, the imputed financing obligation balance in connection with the new facility was $0.8 million which was classified under long-term imputed financing obligation. At the end of the ten year intended use term, we would reverse the equal amounts of the net book value of the building and the corresponding imputed financing obligation.
 
On June 29, 2009, we entered into an Indenture with U.S. Bank, National Association, as trustee, relating to the issuance by us of $150.0 million aggregate principal amount of 5% convertible senior notes due June 15, 2014. On July 10, 2009, an additional $22.5 million in aggregate principal amount of 2014 Notes were issued as a result of the underwriters exercising their overallotment option. The aggregate principal amount of the 2014 Notes outstanding as of December 31, 2010 was $172.5 million, offset by unamortized debt discount of $51.0 million in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. The debt discount is currently being amortized over the remaining 42 months until maturity of the 2014 Notes on June 15, 2014. See Note 14, “Convertible Notes,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for additional details.
 
As of December 31, 2010, our material contractual obligations are (in thousands):
 
                                                         
    Total     2011     2012     2013     2014     2015     Thereafter  
 
Contractual obligations(1)
                                                       
Imputed financing obligation
  $ 49,590     $ 4,495     $ 4,914     $ 5,035     $ 5,155     $ 5,275     $ 24,716  
Leases
    5,525       2,851       1,625       371       357       321        
Software licenses(2)
    8,628       6,640       1,988                          
Convertible notes
    172,500                         172,500              
Interest payments related to convertible notes
    29,807       8,625       8,625       8,625       3,932              
                                                         
Total
  $ 266,050     $ 22,611     $ 17,152     $ 14,031     $ 181,944     $ 5,596     $ 24,716  
                                                         
 
 
(1) The above table does not reflect possible payments in connection with uncertain tax benefits of approximately $11.8 million including $7.2 million recorded as a reduction of long-term deferred tax assets and $4.6 million in long-term income taxes payable, as of December 31, 2010. As noted in Note 11, “Income Taxes,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K, although it is possible that some of the unrecognized tax benefits could be settled within the next 12 months, we cannot reasonably estimate the outcome at this time. The


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above table does not reflect possible payments in connection with the contingently redeemable common stock discussed below.
 
(2) We have commitments with various software vendors for non-cancellable license agreements that generally have terms longer than one year. The above table summarizes those contractual obligations as of December 31, 2010 which are also listed on our balance sheet under current and other long term liabilities.
 
Contingently Redeemable Common Stock
 
On January 19, 2010, pursuant to the terms of the Stock Purchase Agreement, Samsung purchased for cash from us 9.6 million shares of our common stock (the “Shares”) with certain restrictions and put rights. The issuance of the Shares by us to Samsung was made through a private transaction. The Stock Purchase Agreement provides Samsung a one-time put right, beginning 18 months after the date of the Stock Purchase Agreement and extending to 19 months after the date of the Stock Purchase Agreement, to elect to put back to us up to 4.8 million of the Shares at the original issue price of $20.885 per share (for an aggregate purchase price of up to $100.0 million). The 4.8 million shares have been recorded as contingently redeemable common stock on the consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2010.
 
The Stock Purchase Agreement prohibits the transfer of the Shares by Samsung for 18 months after the date of the Stock Purchase Agreement, subject to certain exceptions. After expiration of the transfer restriction period on July 18, 2011, the Stock Purchase Agreement provides that Samsung may transfer a limited number of shares on a daily basis, provides us with a right of first offer for proposed transfers above such daily limits, and, if no sale occurs to us under the right of first offer, allows Samsung to transfer the Shares. Under the Stock Purchase Agreement, we have also agreed that after the transfer restriction period, Samsung will have certain rights to register the Shares for sale under the securities laws of the United States, subject to customary terms and conditions.
 
See Note 3, “Settlement Agreement with Samsung,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for further discussion.
 
Share Repurchase Program
 
In October 2001, the “Board” approved a share repurchase program of our Common Stock, principally to reduce the dilutive effect of employee stock options. Under this program, the Board approved the authorization to repurchase up to 19.0 million shares of our outstanding Common Stock over an undefined period of time. On February 25, 2010, the Board approved a new share repurchase program authorizing the repurchase of up to an additional 12.5 million shares. Share repurchases under the program may be made through open market, established plan or privately negotiated transactions in accordance with all applicable securities laws, rules, and regulations. There is no expiration date applicable to the program. The new share repurchase program replaces the program authorized in October 2001.
 
On August 19, 2010, we entered into the Share Repurchase Agreement with JP Morgan to repurchase approximately $90.0 million of our Common Stock, as part of our share repurchase program. Under the Share Repurchase Agreement, we pre-paid to JP Morgan the $90.0 million purchase price in the third quarter of 2010 for the Common Stock and JP Morgan delivered to us approximately 4.8 million shares of Common Stock at an average price of $18.88 at the completion of the Share Repurchase Agreement in December 2010.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, we repurchased approximately 9.5 million shares of our Common Stock with an aggregate price of approximately $195.1 million, including the price paid pursuant to the Share Repurchase Agreement. As of December 31, 2010, we had repurchased a cumulative total of approximately 26.3 million shares of our Common Stock with an aggregate price of approximately $428.9 million since the commencement of the program in 2001. As of December 31, 2010, there remained an outstanding authorization to repurchase approximately 5.2 million shares of our outstanding Common Stock.
 
We record stock repurchases as a reduction to stockholders’ equity. We record a portion of the purchase price of the repurchased shares as an increase to accumulated deficit when the price of the shares repurchased exceeds the average original proceeds per share received from the issuance of Common Stock. During the year ended December 31, 2010, the cumulative price of the shares repurchased exceeded the proceeds received from the


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issuance of the same number of shares. The excess of $163.6 million was recorded as an increase to accumulated deficit for the year ended December 31, 2010. During the year ended December 31, 2009, we did not repurchase any Common Stock.
 
Shareholder Litigation Related to Historical Stock Option Practices
 
See Note 15 “Litigation and Asserted Claims,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for further discussion.
 
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
 
The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates, including those related to revenue recognition, investments, income taxes, litigation and other contingencies. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
 
We believe the following critical accounting policies affect our more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.
 
Revenue Recognition
 
Overview
 
We recognize revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, we have delivered the product or performed the service, the fee is fixed or determinable and collection is reasonably assured. If any of these criteria are not met, we defer recognizing the revenue until such time as all criteria are met. Determination of whether or not these criteria have been met may require us to make judgments, assumptions and estimates based upon current information and historical experience.
 
Our revenue consists of royalty revenue and contract revenue generated from agreements with semiconductor companies, system companies and certain reseller arrangements. Royalty revenue consists of patent license and technology license royalties. Contract revenue consist of fixed license fees, fixed engineering fees and service fees associated with integration of our technology solutions into our customers’ products. Contract revenue may also include support or maintenance. Reseller arrangements generally provide for the pass-through of a percentage of the fees paid to the reseller by the reseller’s customer for use of our patent and technology licenses. We do not recognize revenue for these arrangements until we have received notice of revenue earned by and paid to the reseller, accompanied by the pass-through payment from the reseller. We do not pay commissions to the reseller for these arrangements.
 
In addition, we may enter into certain settlements of patent infringement disputes. The amount of consideration received upon any settlement (including but not limited to past royalty payments, future royalty payments and punitive damages) is allocated to each element of the settlement based on the Fair Value of each element. In addition, revenues related to past royalties are recognized upon execution of the agreement by both parties, provided that the amounts are fixed or determinable, there are no significant undelivered obligations and collectability is reasonably assured. We do not recognize any revenues prior to execution of the agreement since there is no reliable basis on which we can estimate the amounts for royalties related to previous periods or assess collectability. Elements that are related to royalty revenue in nature (including but not limited to past royalty payments and future royalty payments) will be recorded as royalty revenue in the consolidated statements of operations. Elements that are not related to royalty revenue in nature (including but not limited to punitive damage and settlement) will be


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recorded as gain from settlement which is reflected as a separate line item within the operating expenses section in the consolidated statements of operations.
 
Many of our licensees have the right to cancel their licenses. In such arrangements, revenue is only recognized to the extent that is consistent with the cancellation provisions. Cancellation provisions within such contracts generally provide for a prospective cancellation with no refund of fees already remitted by customers for products provided and payment for services rendered prior to the date of cancellation. Unbilled receivables represent enforceable claims and are deemed collectible in connection with our revenue recognition policy.
 
Royalty Revenue
 
We recognize royalty revenue upon notification by our licensees and when deemed collectible. The terms of the royalty agreements generally either require licensees to give us notification and to pay the royalties within 60 days of the end of the quarter during which the sales occur or are based on a fixed royalty that is due within 45 days of the end of the quarter. We have two types of royalty revenue: (1) patent license royalties and (2) technology license royalties.
 
Patent licenses.   We license our broad portfolio of patented inventions to semiconductor and systems companies who use these inventions in the development and manufacture of their own products. Such licensing agreements may cover the license of part, or all, of our patent portfolio. The contractual terms of the agreements generally provide for payments over an extended period of time. For the licensing agreements with fixed royalty payments, we generally recognize revenue from these arrangements as amounts become due. For the licensing agreements with variable royalty payments which can be based on either a percentage of sales or number of units sold, we earn royalties at the time that the licensees’ sales occur. Our licensees, however, do not report and pay royalties owed for sales in any given quarter until after the conclusion of that quarter. As we are unable to estimate the licensees’ sales in any given quarter to determine the royalties due to us, we recognize royalty revenues based on royalties reported by licensees during the quarter and when other revenue recognition criteria are met.
 
Technology licenses.   We develop proprietary and industry-standard chip interface products, such as RDRAM tm and XDR tm that we provide to our customers under technology license agreements. These arrangements include royalties, which can be based on either a percentage of sales or number of units sold. We earn royalties on such licensed products sold worldwide by our licensees at the time that the licensees’ sales occur. Our licensees, however, do not report and pay royalties owed for sales in any given quarter until after the conclusion of that quarter. As we are unable to estimate the licensees’ sales in any given quarter to determine the royalties due to us, we recognize royalty revenues based on royalties reported by licensees during the quarter and when other revenue recognition criteria are met.
 
Contract Revenue
 
We generally recognize revenue using percentage of completion for development contracts related to licenses of our interface solutions, such as XDR tm and FlexIO tm that involve significant engineering and integration services. For all license and service agreements accounted for using the percentage-of-completion method, we determine progress to completion using input measures based upon contract costs incurred. We have evaluated use of output measures versus input measures and have determined that our output is not sufficiently uniform with respect to cost, time and effort per unit of output to use output measures as a measure of progress to completion. Part of these contract fees may be due upon the achievement of certain milestones, such as provision of certain deliverables by us or production of chips by the licensee. The remaining fees may be due on pre-determined dates and include significant up-front fees.
 
A provision for estimated losses on fixed price contracts is made, if necessary, in the period in which the loss becomes probable and can be reasonably estimated. If we determine that it is necessary to revise the estimates of the total costs required to complete a contract, the total amount of revenue recognized over the life of the contract would not be affected. However, to the extent the new assumptions regarding the total efforts necessary to complete a project are less than the original assumptions, the contract fees would be recognized sooner than originally expected. Conversely, if the newly estimated total efforts necessary to complete a project are longer than the original assumptions, the contract fees will be recognized over a longer period.


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If application of the percentage-of-completion method results in recognizable revenue prior to an invoicing event under a customer contract, we will recognize the revenue and record an unbilled receivable. Amounts invoiced to our customers in excess of recognizable revenue are recorded as deferred revenue. The timing and amounts invoiced to customers can vary significantly depending on specific contract terms and can therefore have a significant impact on deferred revenue or unbilled receivables in any given period.
 
We also recognize revenue for development contracts related to licenses of our chip interface products that involve non-essential engineering services and post contract support (“PCS”). These SOPs apply to all entities that earn revenue on products containing software, where software is not incidental to the product as a whole. Contract fees for the products and services provided under these arrangements are comprised of license fees and engineering service fees which are not essential to the functionality of the product. Our rates for PCS and for engineering services are specific to each development contract and not standardized in terms of rates or length. Because of these characteristics, we do not have a sufficient population of contracts from which to derive vendor specific objective evidence for each of the elements.
 
Therefore, after we deliver the product, if the only undelivered element is PCS, we will recognize all revenue ratably over either the contractual PCS period or the period during which PCS is expected to be provided. We review assumptions regarding the PCS periods on a regular basis. If we determine that it is necessary to revise the estimates of the support periods, the total amount of revenue to be recognized over the life of the contract would not be affected.
 
Litigation
 
We are involved in certain legal proceedings, as discussed in Note 15, “Litigation and Asserted Claims,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K. Based upon consultation with outside counsel handling our defense in these matters and an analysis of potential results, we accrue for losses related to litigation if we determine that a loss is probable and can be reasonably estimated. If a specific loss amount cannot be estimated, we review the range of possible outcomes and accrue the low end of the range of estimates. Any such accrual would be charged to expense in the appropriate period. We recognize litigation expenses in the period in which the litigation services were provided.
 
Income Taxes
 
As part of preparing our consolidated financial statements, we are required to calculate the income tax expense or benefit which relates to the pretax income or loss for the period. In addition, we are required to assess the realization of the deferred tax asset or liability to be included on the consolidated balance sheet as of the reporting dates.
 
As of December 31, 2010, our consolidated balance sheet included net deferred tax assets, before valuation allowance, of approximately $78.3 million, which consists of net operating loss carryovers, tax credit carryovers, depreciation and amortization, employee stock-based compensation expenses and certain liabilities. For the year ended December 31, 2010, a valuation allowance of $75.4 million reduced net deferred tax assets to $2.9 million. Management periodically evaluates the realizability of our net deferred tax assets based on all available evidence, both positive and negative. The realization of net deferred tax assets is dependent on our ability to generate sufficient future taxable income during periods prior to the expiration of tax statutes to fully utilize these assets. Our forecasted future operating results are highly influenced by, among other factors, assumptions regarding (1) our ability to achieve our forecasted revenue, (2) our ability to effectively manage our expenses in line with our forecasted revenue and (3) general trends in the semiconductor industry.
 
We weighed both positive and negative evidence and determined that there is a continued need for a valuation allowance due to projected future losses, which we considered significant negative evidence. Though considered positive evidence, projected income from potential favorable patent and related settlement litigation were not included in the determination for the valuation allowance due to our inability to reliably estimate and objectively verify the timing and amounts of such settlements. Even though we are no longer in a cumulative tax loss position for the last twelve quarters primarily due to certain discrete positive events, the projection of significant future losses is a negative factor that outweighs the positive factors leading to a conclusion that a release of the valuation


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allowance is not yet appropriate. If any settlement income is realized, we will reassess our position on maintaining the valuation allowance.
 
Tax attributes related to stock option windfall deductions are not to be recognized until they result in a reduction of cash taxes payable. The benefit of these excess tax benefits will be recorded to equity when they reduce cash taxes payable.
 
The calculation of our tax liabilities involves uncertainties in the application of complex tax law and regulations in a multitude of jurisdictions. Although FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 740 Income Taxes, provides further clarification on the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes, significant judgment is required by management. If the ultimate resolution of tax uncertainties is different from what is currently estimated, a material impact on income tax expense could result.
 
Stock-Based Compensation
 
For the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, we maintained stock plans covering a broad range of potential equity grants including stock options, nonvested equity stock and equity stock units and performance based instruments. In addition, we sponsor an Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”), whereby eligible employees are entitled to purchase Common Stock semi-annually, by means of limited payroll deductions, at a 15% discount from the fair market value of the Common Stock as of specific dates.
 
The accounting guidance for share-based payments requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense in our statement of operations for all share-based payment awards made to our employees, directors and consultants including employee stock options, nonvested equity stock and equity stock units, and employee stock purchase grants. Stock-based compensation expense is measured at grant date, based on the estimated fair value of the award, reduced by an estimate of the annualized rate of expected forfeitures, and is recognized as expense over the employees’ expected requisite service period, generally using the straight-line method. In addition, the accounting guidance for share-based payments requires the benefits of tax deductions in excess of recognized compensation expense to be reported as a financing cash flow, rather than as an operating cash flow as prescribed under previous accounting rules. Our forfeiture rate represents the historical rate at which our stock-based awards were surrendered prior to vesting. The accounting guidance for share-based payments requires forfeitures to be estimated at the time of grant and revised on a cumulative basis, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. See Note 8, “Equity Incentive Plans and Stock-Based Compensation,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for more information regarding the valuation of stock-based compensation.
 
Marketable Securities
 
Available-for-sale securities are carried at fair value, based on quoted market prices, with the unrealized gains or losses reported, net of tax, in stockholders’ equity as part of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). The amortized cost of debt securities is adjusted for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity, both of which are included in interest and other income, net. Realized gains and losses are recorded on the specific identification method and are included in interest and other income, net. We review our investments in marketable securities for possible other than temporary impairments on a regular basis. If any loss on investment is believed to be other than temporary, a charge will be recognized in operations. In evaluating whether a loss on a debt security is other than temporary, we consider the following factors: 1) our intent to sell the security, 2) if we intend to hold the security, whether or not it is more likely than not that we will be required to sell the security before recovery of the security’s amortized cost basis and 3) even if we intend to hold the security, whether or not we expect the security to recover the entire amortized cost basis. Due to the high credit quality and short term nature of our investments, there have been no other than temporary impairments recorded to date. The classification of funds between short-term and long-term is based on whether the securities are available for use in operations or other purposes.
 
Goodwill
 
Costs in excess of the fair value of tangible and other intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination are recorded as goodwill. The accounting treatment for goodwill requires that companies not


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amortize goodwill, but instead test for impairment at least annually using a two-step approach. We evaluate goodwill, at a minimum, on an annual basis and whenever events and changes in circumstances suggest that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. Impairment of goodwill is tested at the reporting unit level by comparing each reporting unit’s carrying amount, including goodwill, to the fair value of the reporting unit. The fair values of the reporting units are estimated using a combination of the income, or discounted cash flows, approach and the market approach, which utilizes comparable companies’ data. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, goodwill is considered impaired and a second step is performed to measure the amount of impairment. The second step involves determining the fair value of goodwill for each reporting unit. Any excess carrying amount of goodwill over the fair value determined in the second step will be recorded as a goodwill impairment loss.
 
Convertible Notes
 
See Note 14, “Convertible Notes,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K regarding the accounting policy in regards to the adoption of the FASB accounting guidance which clarifies the accounting for convertible debt instruments that may be settled in cash upon conversion, including partial cash settlement.
 
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
 
See Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for a full description of recent accounting pronouncements including the respective expected dates of adoption.
 
Expiration of Rights Plan
 
Our stockholder rights plan expired in July 2010 and we made the decision not to renew the plan at this time.
 
Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
 
We are exposed to financial market risks, primarily arising from the effect of interest rate fluctuations on our investment portfolio. Interest rate fluctuation may arise from changes in the market’s view of the quality of the security issuer, the overall economic outlook, and the time to maturity of our portfolio. We mitigate this risk by investing only in high quality, highly liquid instruments. Securities with original maturities of one year or less must be rated by two of the three industry standard rating agencies as follows: A1 by Standard & Poor’s, P1 by Moody’s and/or F-1 by Fitch. Securities with original maturities of greater than one year must be rated by two of the following industry standard rating agencies as follows: AA- by Standard & Poor’s, Aa3 by Moody’s and/or AA- by Fitch. By corporate policy, we limit the amount of exposure to $15.0 million or 10% of the portfolio, whichever is lower, for any one non-U.S. Government issuer. A single U.S. Agency can represent up to 25% of the portfolio. No more than 20% of the total portfolio may be invested in the securities of an industry sector, with money market fund investments evaluated separately. Our policy requires that at least 10% of the portfolio be in securities with a maturity of 90 days or less. We may make investments in U.S. Treasuries, U.S. Agencies, corporate bonds and municipal bonds and notes with maturities up to 36 months. However, the bias of our investment portfolio is shorter maturities. All investments must be U.S. dollar denominated.
 
We invest our cash equivalents and marketable securities in a variety of U.S. dollar financial instruments such as Treasuries, Government Agencies, Commercial Paper and Corporate Notes. Our policy specifically prohibits trading securities for the sole purposes of realizing trading profits. However, we may liquidate a portion of our portfolio if we experience unforeseen liquidity requirements. In such a case if the environment has been one of rising interest rates we may experience a realized loss, similarly, if the environment has been one of declining interest rates we may experience a realized gain. As of December 31, 2010, we had an investment portfolio of fixed income marketable securities of $494.9 million including cash equivalents. If market interest rates were to increase immediately and uniformly by 1.0% from the levels as of December 31, 2010, the fair value of the portfolio would decline by approximately $1.3 million. Actual results may differ materially from this sensitivity analysis.


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The table below summarizes the amortized cost, fair value, unrealized gains (losses) and related weighted average interest rates for our cash equivalents and marketable securities portfolio as of December 31, 2010 and December 31, 2009:
 
                                         
    December 31, 2010  
                Gross
    Gross
    Weighted
 
          Amortized
    Unrealized
    Unrealized
    Rate of
 
    Fair Value     Cost     Gains     Losses     Return  
    (Dollars in thousands)  
 
Money Market Funds
  $ 132,364     $ 132,364     $       —     $       —       0.04 %
U.S. Government Bonds and Notes
    266,817       266,840       29       (52 )     0.26 %
Corporate Notes, Bonds and Commercial Paper
    95,724       95,773       8       (57 )     0.39 %
                                         
Total cash equivalents and marketable securities
    494,905       494,977       37       (109 )        
Cash
    17,104       17,104                      
                                         
Total cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities
  $ 512,009     $ 512,081     $ 37     $ (109 )        
                                         
 
                                         
    December 31, 2009  
                Gross
    Gross
    Weighted
 
          Amortized
    Unrealized
    Unrealized
    Rate of
 
    Fair Value     Cost     Gains     Losses     Return  
    (Dollars in thousands)  
 
Money Market Funds
  $ 280,908     $ 280,908     $       —     $       —       0.01 %
U.S. Government Bonds and Notes
    138,829       138,521       377       (69 )     1.09 %
Corporate Notes, Bonds and Commercial Paper
    32,291       32,222       70       (1 )     1.89 %
                                         
Total cash equivalents and marketable securities
    452,028       451,651       447       (70 )        
Cash
    8,165       8,165                      
                                         
Total cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities
  $ 460,193     $ 459,816     $ 447     $ (70 )        
                                         
 
The fair value of our convertible notes is subject to interest rate risk, market risk and other factors due to the convertible feature. The fair value of the convertible notes will generally increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise. In addition, the fair value of the convertible notes will generally increase as our common stock prices increase and decrease as the stock prices fall. The interest and market value changes affect the fair value of our convertible notes but do not impact our financial position, cash flows or results of operations due to the fixed nature of the debt obligation. Additionally, we do not carry the convertible notes at fair value. We present the fair value of the convertible notes for required disclosure purposes. The following table summarizes certain information related to our 2014 Notes as of December 31, 2010:
 
                         
        Fair Value Given a
  Fair Value Given a
        10%
  10%
        Increase in Market
  Decrease in Market
    Fair Value   Prices   Prices
    (In thousands)
 
5% Convertible Senior Notes due 2014
  $ 224,504     $ 246,954     $ 202,053  
 
We invoice our customers in U.S. dollars. Although the fluctuation of currency exchange rates may impact our customers, and thus indirectly impact us, we do not attempt to hedge this indirect and speculative risk. Our overseas operations consist primarily of one design center in India and small business development offices in Germany, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. We monitor our foreign currency exposure; however, as of December 31, 2010, we believe our foreign currency exposure is not material enough to warrant foreign currency hedging.


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Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
See Item 15 “Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules” of this Form 10-K for required financial statements and supplementary data.
 
Item 9.    Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
 
None.
 
Item 9A.    Controls and Procedures
 
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
 
We maintain disclosure controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in the reports we file or submit pursuant to the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934 as amended (“Exchange Act”) is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the Securities and Exchange Commission, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
 
Management, with the participation of the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, evaluated the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) of the Exchange Act as of the end of the period covered by this report. Based on this evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have concluded that, as of December 31, 2010, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective.
 
The internal control over financial reporting related to the assets acquired under a business combination from Imagine Designs Inc., was excluded from the evaluation of the effectiveness of the Company’s disclosure control and procedures as of the end of the period covered by this report because the assets were acquired in a business combination during 2010. Total assets, revenues and operating expenses of this business combination represent approximately 2.3%, 0% and 0%, respectively, of the related consolidated financial statement amounts as of and for the year ended December 31, 2010.
 
Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
 
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act. Our internal control over financial reporting is the process designed by, or under the supervision of, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, and effected by our board of directors, management and other personnel, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and includes those policies and procedures that:
 
(i) pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect our transactions and dispositions of assets;
 
(ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that our receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with the authorization of our management and directors; and
 
(iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of our assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
 
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
 
Our management has excluded the business acquired from Imagine Design Inc., from its assessment of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2010 because it was acquired by the Company in a business


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combination during the year ended December 31, 2010. Total assets, revenues and operating expenses from this business combination represent 2.3%, 0% and 0%, respectively, of the related consolidated financial statement amounts as of and for the year ended December 31, 2010.
 
Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, we conducted an assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2010. In making this assessment, our management used the criteria set forth in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”). Based on the results of this assessment, management has concluded that, as of December 31, 2010, our internal control over financial reporting was effective based on the criteria in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the COSO.
 
The effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2010 has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which appears herein.
 
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
 
There were no changes in internal control over financial reporting during the last fiscal quarter that has materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
 
Item 9B.    Other Information
 
None.
 
PART III
 
Item 10.    Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
 
The information responsive to this item is incorporated herein by reference to our Proxy Statement for our 2011 annual meeting of stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The information under the heading “Our Executive Officers” in Part I, Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K is also incorporated herein by reference.
 
We have a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for all of our directors, officers and employees. Our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics is available on our website at http://investor.rambus.com/documentdisplay.cfm?DocumentID=5115. To date, there have been no waivers under our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics. We will post any amendments or waivers, if and when granted, of our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics on our website.
 
Item 11.    Executive Compensation
 
The information responsive to this item is incorporated herein by reference to our Proxy Statement for our 2011 annual meeting of stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Item 12.    Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
 
The information responsive to this item is incorporated herein by reference to our Proxy Statement for our 2011 annual meeting of stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


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Item 13.    Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
 
The information responsive to this item is incorporated herein by reference to our Proxy Statement for our 2011 annual meeting of stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Item 14.    Principal Accountant Fees and Services
 
The information responsive to this item is incorporated herein by reference to our Proxy Statement for our 2011 annual meeting of stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
PART IV
 
Item 15.    Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
 
(a)(1) Financial Statements
 
The following consolidated financial statements of the Registrant and Report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm, are included herewith:
 
         
    Page
 
    56  
    57  
    58  
    59  
    60  
    61  
    113  
 
(a)(2) Financial Statement Schedule
 
The following financial statement schedule of the Registrant is included herewith and should be read in conjunction with the Financial Statements included in this Item 15:
 
         
    Page
 
    114  
 
All other schedules are omitted because they are not applicable or the required information is shown in the Financial Statements or the notes thereto.


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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
 
To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of Rambus Inc.:
 
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements listed in the index appearing under Item 15 (a)(1) present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Rambus Inc. and its subsidiaries at December 31, 2010 and December 31, 2009, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2010, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. In addition, in our opinion, the financial statement schedule listed in the index appearing under item 15(a)(2) presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein when read in conjunction with the related consolidated financial statements. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2010 based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). The Company’s management is responsible for these financial statements and financial statement schedule, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting, under item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on these financial statements, on the financial statement schedule, and on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our integrated audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audits of the financial statements included examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.
 
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
 
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
 
As described in Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting, management has excluded the business acquired from Imagine Design Inc., from its assessment of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2010 because it was acquired by the Company in a business combination during the year ended December 31, 2010. Total assets, revenues and operating expenses of this business combination represent approximately 2.3%, 0% and 0%, respectively, of the related consolidated financial statement amounts as of and for the year ended December 31, 2010.
 
/s/  PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
 
San Jose, California
February 25, 2011


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RAMBUS INC.
 
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
 
                 
    December 31,  
    2010     2009  
    (In thousands, except shares and per share amounts)  
 
ASSETS
Current assets:
               
Cash and cash equivalents
  $ 215,262     $ 289,073  
Marketable securities
    296,747       171,120  
Accounts receivable
    2,600       949  
Prepaids and other current assets
    10,898       8,700  
Deferred taxes
    2,420       129  
                 
Total current assets
    527,927       469,971  
Deferred taxes, long term
    2,974       2,034  
Intangible assets, net
    40,986       21,660  
Goodwill
    18,154       15,554  
Property, plant and equipment, net
    67,770       38,966  
Other assets
    5,361       7,684  
                 
Total assets
  $ 663,172     $ 555,869  
                 
 
LIABILITIES, CONTINGENTLY REDEEMABLE COMMON STOCK & STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities:
               
Accounts payable
  $ 5,952     $ 8,972  
Accrued salaries and benefits
    31,634       6,435  
Accrued litigation expenses
    4,060       5,147  
Other accrued liabilities
    14,165       4,506  
Non-cash obligation for construction in progress
          25,100  
Convertible notes, current
          136,032  
                 
Total current liabilities
    55,811       186,192  
Convertible notes, long-term
    121,500       112,012  
Long-term imputed financing obligation
    27,899        
Long-term income taxes payable
    4,577       1,994  
Other long-term liabilities
    5,102       344  
                 
Total liabilities
    214,889       300,542  
                 
Commitments and contingencies (Notes 7 and 15)
               
Contingently redeemable common stock:
               
Issued and outstanding: 4,788,125 shares at December 31, 2010 and no shares at December 31, 2009
    113,500        
                 
Stockholders’ equity:
               
Convertible preferred stock, $.001 par value:
               
Authorized: 5,000,000 shares; Issued and outstanding: no shares at December 31, 2010 and December 31, 2009
           
Common Stock, $.001 par value:
               
Authorized: 500,000,000 shares; Issued and outstanding: 102,676,544 shares at December 31, 2010 and 105,934,157 shares at December 31, 2009
    103       106  
Additional paid in capital
    911,632       818,992  
Accumulated deficit
    (576,590 )     (563,858 )
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
    (362 )     87  
                 
Total stockholders’ equity
    334,783       255,327  
                 
Total liabilities, contingently redeemable common stock and stockholders’ equity
  $ 663,172     $ 555,869  
                 
 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements


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RAMBUS INC.
 
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
 
                         
    Years Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008  
    (In thousands, except per share amounts)  
 
Revenue:
                       
Royalties
  $ 320,155     $ 108,001     $ 126,910  
Contract revenue
    3,235       5,006       15,584  
                         
Total revenue
    323,390       113,007       142,494  
                         
Operating costs and expenses:
                       
Cost of revenue*
    6,937       6,876       21,303  
Research and development*
    92,706       67,252       76,222  
Marketing, general and administrative*
    119,475       128,199       124,077  
Costs (recoveries) of restatement and related legal activities, net
    4,190       (13,458 )     3,262  
Gain from settlement
    (126,800 )            
Restructuring costs*
                4,185  
Impairment of intangible asset
                2,158  
                         
Total operating costs and expenses
    96,508       188,869       231,207  
                         
Operating income (loss)
    226,882       (75,862 )     (88,713 )
Interest income and other income, net
    861       4,085       15,199  
Interest expense
    (19,699 )     (20,950 )     (11,805 )
                         
Interest and other income (expense), net
    (18,838 )     (16,865 )     3,394  
                         
Income (loss) before income taxes
    208,044       (92,727 )     (85,319 )
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes
    57,127       (541 )     113,791  
                         
Net income (loss)
  $ 150,917     $ (92,186 )   $ (199,110 )
                         
Net income (loss) per share:
                       
Basic
  $ 1.34     $ (0.88 )   $ (1.90 )
                         
Diluted
  $ 1.30     $ (0.88 )   $ (1.90 )
                         
Weighted average shares used in per share calculations:
                       
Basic
    112,456       105,011       104,574  
                         
Diluted
    115,884       105,011       104,574  
                         
                       
* Includes stock-based compensation:
                       
Cost of revenue
  $ 173     $ 1,002     $ 5,187  
Research and development
  $ 10,165     $ 9,715     $ 13,488  
Marketing, general and administrative
  $ 20,210     $ 20,868     $ 18,492  
Restructuring costs
  $     $     $ 547  
 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements


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RAMBUS INC.
 
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME/(LOSS)
 
                                                 
                            Accumulated
       
                Additional
          Other
       
    Common Stock     Paid-in
    Accumulated
    Comprehensive
       
    Shares     Amount     Capital     Deficit     Gain (Loss)     Total  
    (In thousands)  
 
Balances at December 31, 2007
    105,295     $ 105     $ 649,996     $ (227,739 )   $ 124     $ 422,486  
Components of comprehensive loss:
                                               
Net loss
                      (199,110 )           (199,110 )
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of tax
                            60       60  
Unrealized gain on marketable securities, net of tax
                            685       685  
                                                 
Total comprehensive loss
                                            (198,365 )
                                                 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of options, equity stock and stock units, and employee stock purchase plan
    2,251       2       21,761                   21,763  
Repurchase and retirement of common stock under repurchase plan and shares received from a former executive
    (3,743 )     (3 )     (5,248 )     (44,823 )           (50,074 )
Repurchase of convertible notes
                (259 )                 (259 )
Stock-based compensation
                37,761                   37,761  
Tax shortfall from equity incentive plans
                (371 )                 (371 )
                                                 
Balances at December 31, 2008
    103,803     $ 104     $ 703,640     $ (471,672 )   $ 869     $ 232,941  
Components of comprehensive loss:
                                               
Net loss
                      (92,186 )           (92,186 )
Unrealized loss on marketable securities, net of tax
                            (782 )     (782 )
                                                 
Total comprehensive loss
                                            (92,968 )
                                                 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of options, equity stock and stock units, and employee stock purchase plan
    2,131       2       19,747                   19,749  
Equity component of 5% convertible senior notes due 2014
                63,867                   63,867  
Stock-based compensation
                31,738                   31,738  
                                                 
Balances at December 31, 2009
    105,934     $ 106     $ 818,992     $ (563,858 )   $ 87     $ 255,327  
Components of comprehensive income:
                                               
Net income
                      150,917             150,917  
Unrealized loss on marketable securities, net of tax
                            (449 )     (449 )
                                                 
Total comprehensive income
                                            150,468  
                                                 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of options, equity stock and employee stock purchase plan
    1,481       1       15,066                   15,067  
Issuance of common stock due to the settlement with Samsung
    4,788       5       78,495                   78,500  
Repurchase and retirement of common stock under repurchase plan
    (9,527 )     (9 )     (31,449 )     (163,649 )           (195,107 )
Stock-based compensation
                30,528                   30,528  
                                                 
Balances at December 31, 2010
    102,676     $ 103     $ 911,632     $ (576,590 )   $ (362 )   $ 334,783  
                                                 
 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements


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RAMBUS INC.
 
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
 
                         
    Years Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008  
    (In thousands)  
 
Cash flows from operating activities:
                       
Net income (loss)
  $ 150,917     $ (92,186 )   $ (199,110 )
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
                       
Stock-based compensation
    30,548       31,585       37,167  
Depreciation
    10,101       10,661       11,326  
Amortization of intangible assets
    5,066       2,984       4,339  
Non-cash interest expense and amortization of convertible debt issuance costs
    11,075       16,624       11,805  
Deferred tax (benefit) provision
    (778 )     (218 )     114,719  
Loss (gain) on disposal of property, plant and equipment
    (153 )     15       76  
Loss on sale of marketable security
    87              
Impairment of intangible assets
                2,158  
Restructuring costs (non-cash)
                547  
Gain on repurchase of convertible notes
                (2,528 )
Impairment of investments
          164        
Recoveries of restatement and related legal activities (non-cash)
                (849 )
Change in assets and liabilities:
                       
Accounts receivable
    (1,651 )     554       417  
Prepaids and other assets
    4,643       997       1,749  
Accounts payable
    (3,811 )     2,520       (3,607 )
Accrued salaries and benefits and other accrued liabilities
    28,050       (5,063 )     (2,939 )
Accrued litigation expenses
    (1,087 )     (9,118 )     (11,969 )
Income taxes payable
    2,211       (111 )     (1,775 )
                         
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
    235,218       (40,592 )     (38,474 )
                         
Cash flows from investing activities:
                       
Acquisition of businesses
    (17,000 )     (26,000 )      
Purchases of property, plant and equipment
    (26,700 )     (2,665 )     (9,871 )
Acquisition of intangible assets
    (7,760 )     (2,500 )     (300 )
Purchases of marketable securities
    (428,768 )     (183,217 )     (362,968 )
Maturities of marketable securities
    296,639       240,927       430,844  
Proceeds from sale of marketable securities
    1,829             24,996  
Proceeds from sale of property, plant and equipment
    257             30  
Investment in non-marketable security
          (2,000 )      
                         
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities
    (181,503 )     24,545       82,731  
                         
Cash flows from financing activities:
                       
Proceeds received from issuance of contingently redeemable common stock and common stock pursuant to the settlement agreement with Samsung
    192,000              
Proceeds from landlord for tenant improvements
    292              
Proceeds received from issuance of common stock under employee stock plans
    16,514       20,692       21,688  
Payments under installment payment arrangement
    (4,274 )           (1,250 )
Repurchase and retirement of common stock, including prepayment under share purchase contract
    (195,108 )           (49,226 )
Repayment of convertible senior notes
    (136,950 )           (18,679 )
Issuance costs related to the issuance of convertible senior notes
          (4,313 )      
Proceeds from issuance of convertible senior notes
          172,500        
                         
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
    (127,526 )     188,879       (47,467 )
                         
Effect of exchange rates on cash and cash equivalents
                60  
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
    (73,811 )     172,832       (3,150 )
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year
    289,073       116,241       119,391  
                         
Cash and cash equivalents at end of year
  $ 215,262     $ 289,073     $ 116,241  
                         
Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:
                       
Cash paid during the period for:
                       
Interest
  $ 8,625     $ 3,943     $  
Income taxes, net of refunds
  $ 56,689     $ 123     $ 219  
Non-cash investing activities:
                       
Non-cash obligation for property, plant and equipment
  $ 2,260     $ 25,100     $  
Property, plant and equipment received and accrued in accounts payable and other accrued liabilities
  $ 4,251     $ 200     $ 629  
Non-cash financing activities
                       
Intangible assets acquired under installment payment arrangement
  $ 500     $     $  
Property, plant and equipment received and accrued in other long-term liabilities
  $ 3,463     $     $  
 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements


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RAMBUS INC.
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
1.   Formation and Business of the Company
 
Rambus Inc. (the “Company” or “Rambus”) is a premier intellectual property and technology licensing company. The Company was incorporated in California in March 1990 and reincorporated in Delaware in March 1997. The Company’s primary focus is the creation, design, development and licensing of patented innovations, technologies and architectures that are foundational to nearly all digital electronics products and systems. The Company’s patented innovations and technologies aim to improve the performance, power efficiency, time-to-market and cost-effectiveness of its customers’ products, components and systems offered and used in semiconductors, computers, mobile applications, gaming and graphics, consumer electronics, lighting displays and general lighting. By licensing its patented innovations and technologies, the Company hopes to continuously enrich the end-user experience of the digital electronics products and systems marketed and sold by its customers and licensees. The Company believes it has established an unparalleled licensing platform and business model that will continue to foster the development of new foundational and leading innovations and technologies. As a result, the Company’s goal is to create significant licensing opportunities, and thereby perpetuate strong company operating performance and long term stockholder value.
 
While the Company has historically focused its efforts in developing and licensing patented innovations and technologies for the semiconductor industry, particularly within chip interfaces, it has initiated diversification efforts to expand its portfolio of patented innovations and technologies into lighting and displays, mobile communications, and additional semiconductor technologies. The Company expects to continue this diversification initiative through the acquisition of assets and the hiring of the inventors, scientists and engineers who will lead the effort to further develop these patented innovations and technologies in these new areas of focus. During 2010, the Company initiated an internal structural reorganization to establish separate business groups for its semiconductor industry focused operations (SBG) and operations focused on new or emerging licensing opportunities (NBG) which includes the LDT group.
 
2.   Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
 
Financial Statement Presentation
 
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Rambus and its wholly owned subsidiaries, Rambus K.K., located in Tokyo, Japan and Rambus Ltd., located in George Town, Grand Caymans, British West Indies, of which Rambus Chip Technologies (India) Private Limited, Rambus Deutschland GmbH, located in Pforzheim, Germany, and Rambus Korea, Inc., located in Seoul, Korea. In addition, Rambus International Ltd. and Rambus Delaware LLC are also subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in the accompanying consolidated financial statements. Investments in entities with less than 20% ownership by Rambus and in which Rambus does not have the ability to significantly influence the operations of the investee are accounted for using the cost method and are included in other assets.
 
Use of Estimates
 
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
 
Revenue Recognition
 
Overview
 
Rambus recognizes revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, Rambus has delivered the product or performed the service, the fee is fixed or determinable and collection is reasonably assured. If any of these criteria are not met, Rambus defers recognizing the revenue until such time as all criteria are met.


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RAMBUS INC.
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Determination of whether or not these criteria have been met may require the Company to make judgments, assumptions and estimates based upon current information and historical experience.
 
Rambus’ revenue consists of royalty revenue and contract revenue generated from agreements with semiconductor companies, system companies and certain reseller arrangements. Royalty revenue consists of patent license and technology license royalties. Contract revenue consist of fixed license fees, fixed engineering fees and service fees associated with integration of Rambus’ technology solutions into its customers’ products. Contract revenue may also include support or maintenance. Reseller arrangements generally provide for the pass-through of a percentage of the fees paid to the reseller by the reseller’s customer for use of the Rambus’ patent and technology licenses. Rambus does not recognize revenue for these arrangements until it has received notice of revenue earned by and paid to the reseller, accompanied by the pass-through payment from the reseller. Rambus does not pay commissions to the reseller for these arrangements.
 
In addition, Rambus may enter into certain settlements of patent infringement disputes. The amount of consideration received upon any settlement (including but not limited to past royalty payments, future royalty payments and punitive damages) is allocated to each element of the settlement based on the Fair Value of each element. In addition, revenues related to past royalties are recognized upon execution of the agreement by both parties, provided that the amounts are fixed or determinable, there are no significant undelivered obligations and collectability is reasonably assured. Rambus does not recognize any revenues prior to execution of the agreement since there is no reliable basis on which it can estimate the amounts for royalties related to previous periods or assess collectability. Elements that are related to royalty revenue in nature (including but not limited to past royalty payments and future royalty payments) will be recorded as royalty revenue in the consolidated statements of operations. Elements that are not related to royalty revenue in nature (including but not limited to punitive damage and settlement) will be recorded as gain from settlement which is reflected as a separate line item within the operating expenses section in the consolidated statements of operations.
 
Many of Rambus’ licensees have the right to cancel their licenses. In such arrangements, revenue is only recognized to the extent that is consistent with the cancellation provisions. Cancellation provisions within such contracts generally provide for a prospective cancellation with no refund of fees already remitted by customers for products provided and payment for services rendered prior to the date of cancellation. Unbilled receivables represent enforceable claims and are deemed collectible in connection with our revenue recognition policy.
 
Royalty Revenue
 
Rambus recognizes royalty revenue upon notification by its licensees and when deemed collectible. The terms of the royalty agreements generally either require licensees to give Rambus notification and to pay the royalties within 60 days of the end of the quarter during which the sales occur or are based on a fixed royalty that is due within 45 days of the end of the quarter. Rambus has two types of royalty revenue: (1) patent license royalties and (2) technology license royalties.
 
Patent licenses.   Rambus licenses its broad portfolio of patented inventions to semiconductor and systems companies who use these inventions in the development and manufacture of their own products. Such licensing agreements may cover the license of part, or all, of our patent portfolio. The contractual terms of the agreements generally provide for payments over an extended period of time. For the licensing agreements with fixed royalty payments, Rambus generally recognizes revenue from these arrangements as amounts become due. For the licensing agreements with variable royalty payments which can be based on either a percentage of sales or number of units sold, Rambus earns royalties at the time that the licensees’ sales occur. Rambus’ licensees, however, do not report and pay royalties owed for sales in any given quarter until after the conclusion of that quarter. As Rambus is unable to estimate the licensees’ sales in any given quarter to determine the royalties due to Rambus, it recognizes royalty revenues based on royalties reported by licensees during the quarter and when other revenue recognition criteria are met.


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RAMBUS INC.
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Technology licenses.   Rambus develops proprietary and industry-standard chip interface products, such as RDRAM tm and XDR tm that it provides to its customers under technology license agreements. These arrangements include royalties, which can be based on either a percentage of sales or number of units sold. Rambus earns royalties on such licensed products sold worldwide by its licensees at the time that the licensees’ sales occur. Rambus’ licensees, however, do not report and pay royalties owed for sales in any given quarter until after the conclusion of that quarter. As Rambus is unable to estimate the licensees’ sales in any given quarter to determine the royalties due to Rambus, it recognizes royalty revenues based on royalties reported by licensees during the quarter and when other revenue recognition criteria are met.
 
Contract Revenue
 
Rambus generally recognizes revenue using percentage of completion for development contracts related to licenses of its interface solutions, such as XDR tm and FlexIO tm that involve significant engineering and integration services. For all license and service agreements accounted for using the percentage-of-completion method, Rambus determines progress to completion using input measures based upon contract costs incurred. Part of these contract fees may be due upon the achievement of certain milestones, such as provision of certain deliverables by Rambus or production of chips by the licensee. The remaining fees may be due on pre-determined dates and include significant up-front fees.
 
A provision for estimated losses on fixed price contracts is made, if necessary, in the period in which the loss becomes probable and can be reasonably estimated. If we determine that it is necessary to revise the estimates of the total costs required to complete a contract, the total amount of revenue recognized over the life of the contract would not be affected. However, to the extent the new assumptions regarding the total efforts necessary to complete a project are less than the original assumptions, the contract fees would be recognized sooner than originally expected. Conversely, if the newly estimated total efforts necessary to complete a project are longer than the original assumptions, the contract fees will be recognized over a longer period.
 
If application of the percentage-of-completion method results in recognizable revenue prior to an invoicing event under a customer contract, Rambus will recognize the revenue and record an unbilled receivable. Amounts invoiced to its customers in excess of recognizable revenue are recorded as deferred revenue. The timing and amounts invoiced to customers can vary significantly depending on specific contract terms and can therefore have a significant impact on deferred revenue or unbilled receivables in any given period.
 
Rambus also recognizes revenue for development contracts related to licenses of its chip interface products that involve non-essential engineering services and post contract support (“PCS”). These SOPs apply to all entities that earn revenue on products containing software, where software is not incidental to the product as a whole. Contract fees for the products and services provided under these arrangements are comprised of license fees and engineering service fees which are not essential to the functionality of the product. Rambus’ rates for PCS and for engineering services are specific to each development contract and not standardized in terms of rates or length. Because of these characteristics, Rambus does not have a sufficient population of contracts from which to derive vendor specific objective evidence for each of the elements.
 
Therefore, after Rambus delivers the product, if the only undelivered element is PCS, Rambus will recognize all revenue ratably over either the contractual PCS period or the period during which PCS is expected to be provided. Rambus reviews assumptions regarding the PCS periods on a regular basis. If Rambus determines that it is necessary to revise the estimates of the support periods, the total amount of revenue to be recognized over the life of the contract would not be affected.
 
Cash and Cash Equivalents
 
Cash equivalents are highly liquid investments with original maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase. The Company maintains its cash balances with high quality financial institutions. The cash equivalent


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RAMBUS INC.
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
balances are invested in highly-rated and highly-liquid money market securities and certain U.S. government obligations.
 
Marketable Securities
 
Available-for-sale securities are carried at fair value, based on quoted market prices, with the unrealized gains or losses reported, net of tax, in stockholders’ equity as part of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). The amortized cost of debt securities is adjusted for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity, both of which are included in interest and other income, net. Realized gains and losses are recorded on the specific identification method and are included in interest and other income, net. The Company reviews its investments in marketable securities for possible other than temporary impairments on a regular basis. If any loss on investment is believed to be a credit loss, a charge will be recognized in operations. In evaluating whether a credit loss on a debt security has occurred, the Company considers the following factors: 1) the Company’s intent to sell the security, 2) if the Company intends to hold the security, whether or not it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the security before recovery of the security’s amortized cost basis and 3) even if the Company intends to hold the security, whether or not the Company expects the security to recover the entire amortized cost basis. Due to the high credit quality and short term nature of the Company’s investments, there have been no credit losses recorded to date. The classification of funds between short-term and long-term is based on whether the securities are available for use in operations or other purposes.
 
Non-Marketable Securities
 
The Company has an investment in a non-marketable security of a private company which is carried at cost. The Company monitors the investments for other-than-temporary impairment and records appropriate reductions in carrying value when necessary. The non-marketable security is classified as other assets in the consolidated balance sheets.
 
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
 
The amounts reported for cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and accrued liabilities are considered to approximate fair value based upon comparable market information available at the respective balance sheet dates. The Company adopted the fair value measurement statement Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures”, effective January 1, 2008 for financial assets and liabilities measured on a recurring basis. The statement applies to all financial assets and financial liabilities that are being measured and reported on a fair value basis and requires disclosure that establishes a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosure about fair value measurements. For the discussion regarding the impact of the adoption of the statement on the Company’s marketable securities, see Note 16, “Fair Value of Financial Instruments.” Additionally, the Company has adopted the fair value guidance for financial assets and financial liabilities, effective January 1, 2008, which permits an entity to choose to measure many financial instruments and certain other items at fair value at specified election dates. The Company has not elected the fair value option for financial instruments not already carried at fair value.
 
Property, Plant and Equipment
 
Property, plant and equipment includes computer equipments, software, leasehold improvements, furniture and fixtures and buildings. Computer equipment, computer software and furniture and fixtures are stated at cost and depreciated on a straight-line basis over an estimated useful life of three years. The Company undertook a series of structural improvements to ready the Sunnyvale and Brecksville facilities for its use. The Company concluded that its requirement to fund construction costs and responsibility for cost overruns resulted in the Company being considered the owner of the buildings during the construction period for accounting purposes. Following substantial


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RAMBUS INC.
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
completion of construction, the Company occupied both facilities. At completion, the Company concluded that it retained sufficient continuing involvement to preclude de-recognition of the buildings under the FASB authoritative guidance applicable to sale leaseback for real estate. As such, the Company continues to account for the buildings as owned real estate and to record an imputed financing obligation for our obligation to the legal owners. The buildings will be depreciated on a straight-line basis over an estimated useful life of 15 to 39 years. See Note 5, “Balance Sheet Details,” and Note 7, “Commitments and Contingencies,” for additional details. Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or the initial terms of the leases. Upon disposal, assets and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and the related gain or loss is included in results from operations.
 
Segment Reporting
 
Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision makers in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. Rambus has two business groups: the Semiconductor Business Group (“SBG”) which focuses on the design, development and licensing of semiconductor technology, and the New Business Group (“NBG”) which focuses on the design, development and licensing of lighting, display and mobile technologies. These two business groups were considered operating segments but only SBG was considered a reportable segment as NBG did not meet the quantitative thresholds for disclosure as a reportable segment. In addition, Rambus operates in three geographic regions: North America, Asia and Europe.
 
Research and Development
 
Costs incurred in research and development, which include engineering expenses, such as salaries and related benefits, stock-based compensation, depreciation, professional services and overhead expenses related to the general development of Rambus’ products, are expensed as incurred. Software development costs are capitalized beginning when a product’s technological feasibility has been established and ending when a product is available for general release to customers. Rambus has not capitalized any software development costs since the period between establishing technological feasibility and general customer release is relatively short and as such, these costs have not been significant.
 
Income Taxes
 
Income taxes are accounted for using an asset and liability approach, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for expected future tax events that have been recognized differently in Rambus’ consolidated financial statements and tax returns. The measurement of current and deferred tax assets and liabilities is based on provisions of the enacted tax law and the effects of future changes in tax laws and rates. A valuation allowance is established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to amounts expected to be realized.
 
In addition, the calculation of the Company’s tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax regulations. As a result, the Company reports a liability for unrecognized tax benefits resulting from uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken in its tax return. The Company considers many factors when evaluating and estimating its tax positions and tax benefits, which may require periodic adjustments and which may not accurately anticipate actual outcomes.
 
Stock-Based Compensation and Equity Incentive Plans
 
For the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, the Company maintained stock plans covering a broad range of equity grants including stock options, nonvested equity stock and equity stock units and performance based instruments. In addition, the Company sponsors an Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”), whereby eligible employees are entitled to purchase Common Stock semi-annually, by means of limited payroll deductions, at a 15% discount from the fair market value of the Common Stock as of specific dates.


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RAMBUS INC.
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Rambus will only recognize a tax benefit from stock-based awards in additional paid-in capital if an incremental tax benefit is realized after all other tax attributes currently available have been utilized. In addition, Rambus has elected to account for the indirect effects of stock-based awards on other tax attributes, such as the research tax credits, through the statement of operations as part of the tax effect of stock-based compensation.
 
Computation of Earnings (Loss) Per Share
 
Basic earnings (loss) per share is calculated by dividing the net income (loss) by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings (loss) per share is calculated by dividing the earnings (loss) by the weighted average number of common shares and potentially dilutive securities outstanding during the period. Potentially dilutive common shares consist of incremental common shares issuable upon exercise of stock options, employee stock purchases, restricted stock and restricted stock units, and shares issuable upon the conversion of convertible notes. The dilutive effect of outstanding shares is reflected in diluted earnings per share by application of the treasury stock method. This method includes consideration of the amounts to be paid by the employees, the amount of excess tax benefits that would be recognized in equity if the instrument was exercised and the amount of unrecognized stock-based compensation related to future services. No potential dilutive common shares are included in the computation of any diluted per share amount when a net loss is reported. As discussed in Note 3, “Settlement Agreement with Samsung,” the Company reported approximately 4.8 million shares issued to Samsung as contingently redeemable common stock due to the contractual put rights associated with those shares. As such, the Company uses the two-class method for reporting earnings per share.
 
Goodwill
 
Costs in excess of the fair value of tangible and other intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination are recorded as goodwill. The accounting treatment for goodwill, requires that companies not amortize goodwill, but instead test for impairment at least annually using a two-step approach. The Company evaluates goodwill, at a minimum, on an annual basis and whenever events and changes in circumstances suggest that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. Impairment of goodwill is tested at the reporting unit level by comparing each reporting unit’s carrying amount, including goodwill, to the fair value of the reporting unit. The fair values of the reporting units are estimated using a combination of the income, or discounted cash flows, approach and the market approach, which utilizes comparable companies’ data. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, goodwill is considered impaired and a second step is performed to measure the amount of impairment. The second step involves determining the fair value of goodwill for each reporting unit. Any excess carrying amount of goodwill over the fair value determined in the second step will be recorded as a goodwill impairment loss.
 
The Company reorganized its reporting structure in the third quarter of 2010 based on organizational changes within the Company. As a result, the Company identified two reporting units: SBG which focuses on the design, development and licensing of semiconductor technology and the LDT group which is one level below the NBG operating segment and focuses on the design, development and licensing of lighting and display technologies. The Company completed the first step of its annual goodwill impairment analysis related to its SBG and LDT reporting units as of December 31, 2010 and found no instances of impairment of its recorded goodwill of $18.2 million.
 
Intangible Assets
 
The valuation and useful lives of the acquired intangible assets were allocated based on estimated fair values at the acquisition dates. The value of the purchases, along with interviews and management’s estimates were used to determine the useful lives of the assets. The income approach, which includes an analysis of the cash flows and risks associated with achieving such cash flows, was the primary technique utilized in valuing the acquired patented technology. Key assumptions included estimates of revenue growth, cost of revenue, operating expenses and


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RAMBUS INC.
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
income taxes. The discount rates used in the valuation of intangible assets reflected the level of risk associated with the particular technology and the current return on investment requirements of the market.
 
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
 
Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity of a business enterprise during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources, including foreign currency translation adjustments and unrealized gains and losses on marketable securities. Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax, is presented in the consolidated statements of stockholders’ equity and comprehensive loss.
 
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets and Other Intangible Assets
 
Rambus evaluates the recoverability of long-lived assets with finite lives. Intangible assets, including purchased technology and other intangible assets, are carried at cost less accumulated amortization. Finite-lived intangible assets are being amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives of three to ten years. Recognition of impairment of long-lived assets are required whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value amount of an asset may not be recoverable. An impairment charge is recognized in the event the net book value of such assets exceeds the future undiscounted cash flows attributable to such assets. During 2010 and 2009, Rambus did not recognize any impairment of its long-lived and intangible assets. During 2008, the Company recognized an impairment charge of $2.2 million related to an intangible asset that had no alternative use due to a customer’s change in technology requirements.
 
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
 
Rambus’ allowance for doubtful accounts is determined using a combination of factors to ensure that Rambus’ trade and unbilled receivables balances are not overstated due to uncollectibility. The Company performs ongoing customer credit evaluation within the context of the industry in which it operates, does not require collateral, and maintains allowances for potential credit losses on customer accounts when deemed necessary. A specific allowance for a doubtful account up to 100% of the invoice will be provided for any problematic customer balances. Delinquent account balances are written-off after management has determined that the likelihood of collection is not possible. For all periods presented, Rambus had no allowance for doubtful accounts.
 
Credit Concentration
 
As of December 31, 2010 and 2009, the Company’s cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities were invested with two financial institutions in the form of corporate notes, bonds and commercial paper, money market funds, U.S. government bonds and notes, and municipal bonds and notes. The Company’s exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates primarily to its investment portfolio. The Company places its investments with high credit issuers and, by policy, attempts to limit the amount of credit exposure to any one issuer. As stated in the Company’ policy, it will ensure the safety and preservation of the Company’s invested funds by limiting default risk and market risk. The Company has no investments denominated in foreign country currencies and therefore is not subject to foreign exchange risk from these assets.
 
The Company mitigates default risk by investing in high credit quality securities and by positioning its portfolio to respond appropriately to a significant reduction in a credit rating of any investment issuer or guarantor. The portfolio includes only marketable securities with active secondary or resale markets to enable portfolio liquidity.
 
Litigation
 
Rambus is involved in certain legal proceedings. Based upon consultation with outside counsel handling its defense in these matters and an analysis of potential results, Rambus accrues for losses related to litigation if it


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RAMBUS INC.
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
determines that a loss is probable and can be reasonably estimated. If a loss cannot be estimated, Rambus reviews the range of possible outcomes and accrues the low end of the range of estimates. Any such accrual would be charged to expense in the appropriate period. Rambus recognizes litigation expenses in the period in which the litigation services were provided.
 
Restructuring Costs
 
In connection with the Company’s exit activities, the Company records restructuring charges for employee termination costs, long-lived asset impairments, costs related to leased facilities to be abandoned or subleased, and other exit-related costs. Formal plans are developed and approved by management. Restructuring costs related to employee severance are recorded when probable and estimable. Fixed assets that are impaired as a result of restructuring plans are typically accounted for as assets held for sale or are abandoned. The recognition of restructuring charges requires the Company’s management to make judgments and estimates regarding the nature, timing, and amount of costs associated with the planned exit activity, including estimating sublease income and the fair value, less selling costs, of property, plant and equipment to be disposed of. Estimates of future liabilities may change, requiring the Company to record additional restructuring charges or to reduce the amount of liabilities already recorded. At the end of each reporting period, the Company evaluates the remaining accrued balances to ensure their adequacy, that no excess accruals are retained and that the utilization of the provisions is for the intended purpose in accordance with developed exit plans. In the event circumstances change and the provision is no longer required, the provision is reversed.
 
Foreign Currency Translation
 
For foreign subsidiaries using the local currency as their functional currency, assets and liabilities are translated using current exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date and revenue and expense accounts are translated using the weighted average exchange rate during the period. Adjustments resulting from such translation are included in stockholders’ equity as foreign currency translation adjustments and aggregated within accumulated other comprehensive income (loss).
 
For foreign subsidiaries using the U.S. dollar as their functional currency, remeasurement adjustments for non-functional currency monetary assets and liabilities are translated into U.S. dollars at the exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet date. Revenue, expenses, gains or losses are translated at the average exchange rate for the period, and non-monetary assets and liabilities are translated at historical rates. The remeasurement gains and losses of these foreign subsidiaries as well as gains and losses from foreign currency transactions are included in other expense, net in the statements of operations, and are not significant for any periods presented.
 
Recent Accounting Pronouncement
 
In September 2009, the Emerging Issues Task Force (the “EITF”) reached final consensus under Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2009-13 on the issue related to revenue arrangements with multiple deliverables. This issue addresses how to determine whether an arrangement involving multiple deliverables contains more than one unit of accounting and how arrangement consideration should be measured and allocated to the separate units of accounting. This issue is effective for the Company’s revenue arrangements entered into or materially modified on or after January 1, 2011. The Company will evaluate the impact of this issue on the Company’s financial statements when reviewing its new or materially modified revenue arrangements with multiple deliverables. The Company does not currently expect this new standard to significantly impact its consolidate financial statements as the Company does not typically enter into multiple element arrangements.
 
3.   Settlement Agreement with Samsung
 
On January 19, 2010, the Company, Samsung and certain related entities of Samsung entered into a Settlement Agreement (the “Settlement Agreement”) to release all claims against each other with respect to all outstanding


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RAMBUS INC.
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
litigation between them and certain other potential claims. Under the Settlement Agreement, Samsung has paid the Company $200.0 million in cash in two installments in the first quarter of 2010, and the parties released all claims against each other with respect to all outstanding litigation between them and certain other potential claims. Pursuant to the Settlement Agreement, the Company and Samsung entered into a Semiconductor Patent License Agreement on January 19, 2010 (the “License Agreement”), under which Samsung licenses from the Company non-exclusive rights to certain Rambus patents and has agreed to pay the Company cash amounts equal to $25.0 million per quarter, commencing in the first quarter of 2010, subject to certain adjustments and conditions, over the next five years. In addition, as part of the Settlement Agreement, Samsung purchased approximately 9.6 million shares of common stock of Rambus for cash pursuant to the terms of a Stock Purchase Agreement dated January 19, 2010 (the “Stock Purchase Agreement”), as described in more details below. Finally, pursuant to the Settlement Agreement, the Company and Samsung signed a non-binding memorandum of understanding relating to discussions around a new generation of memory technologies. On an aggregate basis, Samsung is expected to make payments to the Company totaling approximately $900.0 million (subject to adjustments per the terms of the License Agreement) from these agreements (collectively, “Samsung Settlement”), of which $500.0 million has been paid through December 31, 2010. The remaining $400.0 million is expected to be paid in successive quarterly payments of approximately $25.0 million (subject to adjustments per the terms of the License Agreement) concluding in the three month period ending December 31, 2014.
 
Under the License Agreement, the Company has granted to Samsung and its subsidiaries (i) a paid-up perpetual patent license for certain identified Samsung DRAM products (these Samsung DRAM products generally include all existing DRAM products aside from the Rambus proprietary products) and (ii) a five-year term patent license to all other semiconductor products. Each license is a non-exclusive, non-transferable, royalty-bearing, worldwide patent license, without the right to sublicense, solely under the applicable patent claims of Rambus for such licensed products, to make (including have made), use, sell, offer for sale and/or import such licensed products until the expiration or termination of the license pursuant to the terms of the License Agreement. The License Agreement requires that Samsung pay the Company cash payments over the next five years of (i) a fixed amount of $25.0 million each quarter during 2010 and the first two quarters of 2011, and (ii) thereafter, $25.0 million adjusted up or down based on certain levels of Samsung revenue for DRAM products licensed under the License Agreement for each quarter after 2010 and subject to a minimum of $10.0 million and a maximum of $40.0 million for each quarter. In addition, additional payments or certain adjustments to the payments by Samsung to the Company under the License Agreement may be due for certain acquisitions of businesses or assets by Samsung involving licensed products. The License Agreement and the licenses granted thereunder may be terminated upon a material breach by a party of its obligations under the agreement, a bankruptcy event involving a party or a change of control of Samsung subject to certain conditions.
 
Under the Stock Purchase Agreement, on January 19, 2010, Samsung purchased for cash from the Company 9.6 million shares of common stock of the Company (the “Shares”) with certain restrictions and put rights. The number of shares issued was based on a price per share equal to $20.885 (which was the average of the open and close trading price of Rambus common stock on The NASDAQ Global Select Market on January 15, 2010, the last trading day prior to the date of the Stock Purchase Agreement). The Shares represented approximately 8.3% of the total outstanding shares of Rambus common stock at that time after giving effect to the issuance thereof. The issuance of the Shares by the Company to Samsung was made through a private transaction. The Stock Purchase Agreement provides Samsung a one-time put right, beginning 18 months after the date of the Stock Purchase Agreement and extending to 19 months after the date of the Stock Purchase Agreement, to elect to put back to the Company up to 4.8 million of the Shares at the original issue price of $20.885 per share (for an aggregate purchase price of up to $100.0 million).
 
The Stock Purchase Agreement prohibits the transfer of the Shares by Samsung for 18 months after the date of the Stock Purchase Agreement, subject to certain exceptions. After expiration of the transfer restriction period, the Stock Purchase Agreement provides that Samsung may transfer a limited number of shares on a daily basis, provides Rambus with a right of first offer for proposed transfers above such daily limits, and, if no sale occurs to


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RAMBUS INC.
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Rambus under the right of first offer, allows Samsung to transfer the Shares. Under the Stock Purchase Agreement, the Company has also agreed that after the transfer restriction period, Samsung will have certain rights to register the Shares for sale under the securities laws of the United States, subject to customary terms and conditions.
 
In addition, until 18 months after the date of the Stock Purchase Agreement, subject to customary exceptions, Samsung is subject to a standstill agreement that prohibits Samsung from, among other things, acquiring additional shares of common stock of the Company, commencing or endorsing any tender offer or exchange offer for shares of common stock of the Company, participating in any solicitation of proxies with respect to voting any shares of common stock of the Company, or announcing or submitting any proposal or offer concerning any extraordinary transaction involving the Company. Samsung is also subject to a voting agreement under the Stock Purchase Agreement that provides that Samsung will vote its Shares in favor of routine proposals (related to election of directors, certain compensation matters, authorized share capital increases and approval of the independent auditors) that are recommended by the Board of Directors of the Company at any stockholder meeting. In all other matters, the voting agreement contained in the Stock Purchase Agreement requires that Samsung vote its Shares in the same proportion as the votes that are cast by all other holders of shares of common stock of the Company. The voting agreement under the Stock Purchase Agreement terminates (i) with respect to Shares that Samsung transfers in accordance with the provisions of the Stock Purchase Agreement, (ii) upon a change of control or bankruptcy event involving the Company or (iii) when Samsung owns less than 3% of the outstanding shares of common stock of the Company.
 
The Samsung Settlement is a multiple element arrangement for accounting purposes. For the multiple element arrangement, the Company identified each element of the arrangement and determined when those elements should be recognized. Using the accounting guidance from multiple element revenue arrangements, the Company allocated the consideration to each element using the estimated fair value of the elements. The Company considered several factors in determining the accounting fair value of the elements of the Samsung Settlement which included a third party valuation using an income approach, the Black-Scholes option pricing model and a residual approach (collectively the “Fair Value”). The inputs and assumptions used in this valuation were from a market participant perspective and included projected revenue, royalty rates, estimated discount rates, useful lives and income tax rates, among others. The development of a number of these inputs and assumptions in the model requires a significant amount of management judgment and is based upon a number of factors, including the selection of industry comparables, market growth rates and other relevant factors. Changes in any number of these assumptions may have had a substantial impact on the Fair Value as assigned to each element. These inputs and assumptions represent management’s best estimates at the time of the transaction.
 
Based on the estimated Fair Value, the consideration of $900.0 million was allocated to the following elements:
 
         
    Estimated
 
    Fair Value  
    (In millions)  
 
Settlement Agreement:
       
Antitrust litigation settlement
  $ 85.0  
Settlement of past infringement
    190.0  
License Agreement
    385.0  
Stock Purchase Agreement
    192.0  
Memorandum of understanding (“MOU”)
     
Residual value
    48.0  
         
Total
  $ 900.0  
         


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RAMBUS INC.
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
The consideration of $900.0 million will be recognized in the Company’s financial statements as follows:
 
  •  $575.0 million as revenue which represented the estimated Fair Value of the settlement of past infringement ($190.0 million) from the resolution of the infringement litigation and the patent license agreement ($385.0 million);
 
  •  $133.0 million to gain from settlement which represented the Fair Value of the resolution of the antitrust litigation ($85.0 million) and the residual value of other elements ($48.0 million) where specific fair value could not be determined, which included other claims and counter claims released;
 
  •  $192.0 million related to the Stock Purchase Agreement which included contingently redeemable common stock due to the restrictions and contractual put rights associated with those shares ($113.5 million) and restricted common stock issued to Samsung ($78.5 million).
 
During the first quarter of 2010, the Company received cash consideration of $425.0 million from Samsung. The amount allocated to the common stock issued to Samsung was allocated to contingently redeemable common stock ($113.5 million) and stockholders’ equity ($78.5 million). The remaining $233.0 million was allocated between revenue ($137.1 million) and gain from settlement ($95.9 million) based on the remaining elements’ estimated Fair Value.
 
During each of the last three quarters of 2010, the Company received cash consideration of $25.0 million from Samsung. For each of the last three quarters of 2010, the amount was allocated between revenue ($14.7 million) and gain from settlement ($10.3 million) based on the estimated Fair Value for the remaining elements.
 
The remaining $400.0 million is expected to be paid in successive quarterly payments of approximately $25.0 million (subject to adjustments per the terms of the License Agreement), concluding in the last quarter of 2014.
 
The cash receipts in 2010 and the remaining future cash receipts from the agreements with Samsung are expected to be recognized as follows assuming no adjustments to the payments under the terms of the agreements:
 
                                                 
    Year Ended
                               
    December 31,
                            Estimated
 
    2010     2011     2012     2013     2014     Fair Value  
    (In millions)  
 
Revenue
  $ 181.2     $ 93.8     $ 100.0     $ 100.0     $ 100.0     $ 575.0  
Gain from settlement
    126.8       6.2                         133.0  
Purchase of Rambus Common Stock
    192.0                               192.0  
                                                 
Total
  $ 500.0     $ 100.0     $ 100.0     $ 100.0     $ 100.0     $ 900.0  
                                                 
 
4.   Marketable Securities
 
Rambus invests its excess cash and cash equivalents primarily in U.S. government agency and treasury notes, commercial paper, corporate notes and bonds, money market funds and municipal notes and bonds that mature within three years.


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RAMBUS INC.
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
All cash equivalents and marketable securities are classified as available-for-sale. Total cash, cash equivalent and marketable securities are summarized as follows:
 
                                         
    December 31, 2010  
                Gross
    Gross
    Weighted
 
          Amortized
    Unrealized
    Unrealized
    Rate of
 
    Fair Value     Cost     Gains     Losses     Return  
    (Dollar in thousands)  
 
Money Market Funds
  $ 132,364     $ 132,364     $       —     $      —       0.04 %
U.S. Government Bonds and Notes
    266,817       266,840       29       (52 )     0.26 %
Corporate Notes, Bonds and Commercial Paper
    95,724       95,773       8       (57 )     0.39 %
                                         
Total cash equivalents and marketable securities
    494,905       494,977       37       (109 )        
Cash
    17,104       17,104                      
                                         
Total cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities
  $ 512,009     $ 512,081     $ 37     $ (109 )        
                                         
 
                                         
    December 31, 2009  
                Gross
    Gross
    Weighted
 
          Amortized
    Unrealized
    Unrealized
    Rate of
 
    Fair Value     Cost     Gains     Losses     Return  
    (Dollar in thousands)  
 
Money Market Funds
  $ 280,908     $ 280,908     $       —     $       —       0.01 %
U.S. Government Bonds and Notes
    138,829       138,521       377       (69 )     1.09 %
Corporate Notes, Bonds and Commercial Paper
    32,291       32,222       70       (1 )     1.89 %
                                         
Total cash equivalents and marketable securities
    452,028       451,651       447       (70 )        
Cash
    8,165       8,165                      
                                         
Total cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities
  $ 460,193     $ 459,816     $ 447     $ (70 )        
                                         
 
Available-for-sale securities are reported at fair value on the balance sheets and classified as follows:
 
                 
    December 31,
    December 31,
 
    2010     2009  
    (Dollars in thousands)  
 
Cash equivalents
  $ 198,158     $ 280,908  
Short term marketable securities
    296,747       171,120  
                 
Total cash equivalents and marketable securities
    494,905       452,028  
Cash
    17,104       8,165  
                 
Total cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities
  $ 512,009     $ 460,193  
                 
 
The Company continues to invest in high quality, highly liquid debt securities that mature within three years. The Company holds all of its marketable securities as available-for-sale, marks them to market, and regularly reviews its portfolio to ensure adherence to its investment policy and to monitor individual investments for risk analysis, proper valuation, and unrealized losses that may be other than temporary. As of December 31, 2010, marketable debt securities with a fair value of $178.2 million, which mature within one year, had insignificant unrealized losses. The Company has no intent to sell, there is no requirement to sell and the Company believes that it can recover the amortized cost of these investments. The Company has found no evidence of impairment due to


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RAMBUS INC.
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
credit losses in its portfolio. Therefore, these unrealized losses were recorded in other comprehensive income (loss). However, the Company cannot provide any assurance that its portfolio of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities will not be impacted by adverse conditions in the financial markets, which may require the Company in the future to record an impairment charge for credit losses which could adversely impact its financial results.
 
The estimated fair value of cash equivalents and marketable securities classified by date of contractual maturity and the associated unrealized gain (loss), net, at December 31, 2010 and December 31, 2009 are as follows:
 
                                 
    As of     Unrealized Gain (Loss), Net  
    December 31,
    December 31,
    December 31,
    December 31,
 
    2010     2009     2010     2009  
    (In thousands)  
 
Contractual maturity:
      &nb